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Romani Dictionary and Language Centre

Romani Dictionary: Kalderash - English” by Ronald Lee

Title: Romani Dictionary: Kalderash - English
Author: Ronald Lee
Publisher: Magoria Books
ISBN: 0981162649
ISBN-13: 9780981162645
Format: paperback
Pages: 350
Size: 6.69" × 9.61"
Price: $39.95
Excerpts: See below.
Buy now: $39.95 USD · £29.95 GBP

See also: Romani Dictionary: English - Kalderash

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Description

“... a comprehensive modern dictionary of the internationalised dialect, which will serve the emerging literary and administrative language needs of the growing Romani intelligentsia...”

— Professor Thomas A. Acton, M.A., D.Phil. (Oxon.), F.R.S.A., O.B.E
Professor of Romani Studies, University of Greenwich

*          *          *

As Ian Hancock notes in the introduction, this dictionary has been years in the making, and its early drafts have been in circulation among a select few for at least three decades.

It should come as no surprise then that this Kalderash dictionary, by Learn Romani author Ronald Lee, is fundamentally different from many previously published Romani dictionaries:

Firstly, it is compiled by a native Romani speaker; secondly, it covers and, where appropriate, differentiates European and North-American Kalderash terms; and thirdly, it is a decidedly academic quality work that does not shy away from Romani grammar.

Prefaced by a grammatical primer, containing over 12,000 lexical items, and filled with countless real world examples of idiomatic usage, this book is an indispensable resource for anyone looking to learn or work with Kalderash Romani.

Excerpt

(Please note that the below excerpted portions of the book may not be copied, reproduced, or otherwise used except as permitted by Fair Use or other relevant legislation.)

Table of Contents

Introduction

1. How to use this dictionary
1.1 Choice of entries
1.2 Caveat
1.3 Pronunciation
1.4 Thematic and athematic items
1.5 Explanation of the entries

2. Romani grammar
2.1 Nominative and oblique
2.2 Noun case forms
2.3 The adjective and stress
2.4 Numerals
2.5 Conjunctions and prepositions
2.6 Verbs
2.7 Verbals

3. Recommended books and other learning tools

Kalderash – English dictionary
A, B, Ch, D, Dj, E, F, G, H, I, K, Kh, L, M, N, O, P, Ph, R, Rr, S, Sh, T, Th, Ts, U, V, W, X, Y, Z, Zh

Introduction

This dictionary has been years in the making. For at least thirty it has existed in typewritten form, circulated unbound and in very few copies. Now, as the logical follow-up to his Learn Romani, Ronald Lee's dictionary has become accessible to everybody.

Some may question its thus becoming readily available. Romanies themselves are reluctant to share their language with others, for understandable reasons; especially in the past, those in the non-Romani world who have wanted to learn it have almost always had an ulterior motive for doing so, and almost always for their own ends rather than for the benefit of those who own the language. Grammars of Romani on library shelves in Germany are quietly and permanently removed by Sinti there, who have not forgotten what use knowledge of their language was put to during the Nazi period, the Porrajmos. One early draft of this dictionary was kept and destroyed by an American Romani woman who feared that it would fall into the wrong hands. Her concern was not unfounded; from her own city a small book entitled Gypsy Talk: Law Enforcement's Guide to the Secret Language of the American Gypsy appeared in 1993, written by Detective Dennis Marlock and privately circulated for use by the police. Its intent was “to help police officers interrogate Gypsy suspects.” The mistakes in it are legion.

Is the appearance of this dictionary therefore breaking a trust? Not at all. Rather than doing so, it is providing a means of making the extensive lexicon of Romani available to Romani speakers themselves, since it contains words that only the older generations now know. Besides, there are scores of Romani dictionaries available already (the Romani Archives in Texas has over a hundred different ones), though very few of them have been written for English speakers. I am sometimes asked by Romani acquaintances why I teach a course on our history and culture. I tell them that there are scores of books about “Gypsies” available in libraries and from the Internet, and ninety-nine percent of them are written by non-Roma, and almost all of them are unreliable. Some are misleading at best and downright racist at worst, and they are readily accessible by the general public. Ronald Lee, like myself, besides being a Romani man is an academic, and therefore can present information from the inside and challenge existing misinformation.

Like Gjerdman and Ljungberg's masterpiece written nearly half a century ago, this dictionary also presents the Vlax dialect of the Kalderash Roma, that spoken by Ronald Lee's principal informant the late Russell Demitro. But unlike either Gjerdman or Ljungberg, or more recently Boretzky or Igla, Ronald is himself a Romani man and worked for many years alongside Kalderash speakers in the Romani world. Some of his life during that period of his life is documented in his book Goddam Gypsy. His knowledge of their dialect is immense.

The dictionary records the variety of Kalderash Romani that is spoken in North America. It differs surprisingly little from European Kalderash, and is easily intelligible with other Vlax dialects such as those spoken by the Lovara and Machvaya. Together, Vlax constitutes the largest single dialect cluster of all Romani dialect groups, in terms not only of numbers (having perhaps five or six million speakers worldwide) but also geographically, having speakers found on all continents. It is therefore a logical variety of Romani for learners to begin with. Romanies who have lost the language, even native speakers of other dialects, are learning this kind of Romani. It does not purport to be any sort of “international standard,” but work elsewhere is in progress on the creation of such a dialect, and Kalderash Vlax is providing its basis.

The day is past when grammars and dictionaries were written by, and for, non-Romani scholars. Since the advent of the Internet, e-mailing and texting have provided the perfect means of communication for a Diaspora people, and has led to an increase in literacy not only in the national language—English in the United States and Canada—but in Romani as well. The orthography employed here is especially suited to English speakers, making use of digraphs such as /ch/, /sh/ and /zh/ rather than /c/, /š/ and /ž/, an orthography now being used in Romani language publications in Hungary and increasingly used in e-mail correspondence, since it requires no suprascript accent marks. This Romani-to-English dictionary, which will in due course be followed by its English-to-Romani companion, is a masterpiece.

Ian Hancock
Director
The Romani Archives and Documentation Center
The University of Texas at Austin
www.radoc.net

1. How to use this dictionary

Because Kalderash Romani has noun cases and a complicated inflectional structure for adjectives and other modifiers, subject to gender and number in the nominative and the oblique, the dictionary entries have been organized with this in mind. The following synopsis has been created to give a brief overview of the grammatical structure and how to interpret the entries, many of which are accompanied by examples of word usage and idiomatic expressions.

No attempt has been made to provide an in-depth grammatical survey since this dictionary is designed to be used in conjunction with a textbook giving the grammatical rules and how to form the inflexions. These are all clearly explained in the author's previously-published Learn Romani — Das-Dúma Rromanes (2005, Hatfield, Hertfordshire UP), an 18-lesson home-study course which can be augmented by other learning tools including Ian Hancock's A Handbook of Vlax Romani (1995, Columbus, Slavica Publisher's, Inc.) and the relevant source material listed in Edward Proctor's Gypsy Dialects (2008, Hatfield, of Hertfordshire UP). At the time of writing (2008) these three sources are the most useful learning tools for those wishing to learn basic Kalderash Romani.

The dictionary has been created primarily to assist young Roma and others who wish to either learn Kalderash or to improve their knowledge of it, rather than for academic linguists who wish to study Romani “dialects.” This need has been and continues to be amply and ably catered to by qualified academic linguists. However, there is almost a total lack of learning tools for laypeople, students and young Roma in High School or college, who in most cases will be unaware of the terminology and structure of modern linguistics or of phonetic systems requiring complicated diacritical marks not found on standard computer keyboards. The dictionary is designed as a computer-friendly, useful learning tool and linguistic terminology has been kept to a minimum. When used, it is explained in simple language and with examples of usage.

1.1 Choice of entries

The basic choice of entries come from the author's own vocabulary plus words and examples recorded from native speakers and from music CDs by native North-American speakers. The basic entries are from the North-American Kalderash dialect spoken in Canada and the US augmented by words recorded by the author from speakers of mutually intelligible Latin-American and European dialects. I have avoided listing words taken from other published works except material written by native speakers such as Mateo Maximoff and other Kalderash Roma. Some of the published works consulted contained entries which I have never heard or recorded and none have been included in order to avoid possible errors in recording, transcription or typographical errors in the original sources.

It must also be realized that all speakers of Romani are at least bilingual if not multilingual. Because of this, many technical terms and modernisms from the non-Romani language spoken are intermixed with Romani, for example in North-American Kalderash; Tho kotor manrro ánde tósta! ‘Put a piece of bread in the toaster!’ Since there is no established Romani word for ‘toaster.’ the English word ‘toaster’ is employed but pronounced as if it were a Romani word. Typical could be; Trobul o mobíli neve brake liners, zhanes. ‘The car needs a new brake liners, you know.’

In dialects of Kalderash from Europe, European-language borrowings would be employed in this way which can be confusing to English speakers learning Kalderash. Another pitfall exists in the different terminology used in various countries for items like ‘cake,’ ‘pie,’ ‘cookie,’ etc. Many internationally used terms such as ‘banana’ and ‘pizza’ are commonly used and inflected into oblique stems in Kalderash because their structure resembles Romani, bananáki morki, ‘banana skin,’ for example. But with a great many English words such as ‘microwave’ this is impossible. Many, however, are converted into athematic items such as plondjéri ‘toilet plunger.’ or tróko ‘truck/lorry’ and can then be inflected.

Kalderash like other Romani dialects has been a purely orally-transmitted language until recently and it is thus highly idiomatic. Verbs and expressions often cannot be translated literally and must rely on idiomatic constructions or even proverbs. These have been listed where appropriate. Native speakers communicating in Romani verbally, in writing, over the Internet and in publications, are also developing neologisms that are finding their way into the vocabularies of other speakers and these are listed as such in the dictionary (neolog). When speaking ones own dialect, these neologisms do not have to be used as much but in cross-dialectal email communication, they are used because the equivalents in the two native dialects of those communicating are different. For meeting, one dialect may have diwáno and kidemos for ‘meeting’ but another may not have either or have one of them but with a different meaning. Thus, to be widely understood across inter-dialectal communication, the neologism mítingo might be employed.

Finally, while many of the athematic entries (loan words) might seem to be derived from Spanish, they are, in fact, derived from Romanian, since Kalderash dialects have been heavily influenced by this language. A few words which appear in North-American Kalderash have been borrowed from Spanish but do not appear in central/eastern-European dialects of Kalderash. It goes without saying that Spanish loan words will appear in Kalderash and closely-related dialects in Latin America.

1.2 Caveat

Some compilers of basic children's primers, biblical translations, glossaries and even dictionaries in Vlax-Romani dialects similar to Kalderash have inserted thematic words from other Romani dialects not used in Kalderash such as rukh ‘tree’ and len ‘river.’ Others, in their enthusiasm to create a more Indic Romani have even lifted words from Hindi or calqued on Sanskrit to create terms like bânduk ‘rifle,’ golni ‘ball’ (Hindi goli ‘bullet.’) or wastin ‘elephant’ calqued from Sanskrit via Hindi hathiñ. One zealot even introduced the word almári for ‘cupboard,’ which is in fact, a Hindi word adopted from Portuguese in their Indian colonies at least 500 years after the ancestors of the Roma had left India! A non-literary living language is not something to be toyed with for one's own amusement like Esperanto by linguistic zealots devoted to “cleansing” it of its non-Indic athematic items. These spurious ‘Romani’ entries have been avoided in the dictionary since they are not understood by native speakers of Kalderash. A similar attempt at ‘linguistic cleansing’ was attempted with French in my native province of Quebec in the 1980s by the Provincial Office de la Langue Française to rid French Canadian of its anglicisms and colloquialisms. Predictably, this foundered on the reality of the rocks of the tenacity of the spoken language.

1.3 Pronunciation

There is no standard pronunciation of Kalderash Romani that is common to all native speakers in the many countries and regions of countries where Kalderash speech communities are located, any more than there is a standard pronunciation of colloquial English throughout the English-speaking world. Pronunciation, especially of vowels, differs because of migrations, isolation in specific regions by some groups, influences from the surrounding non-Romani language(s) spoken by the speakers and other factors. The pronunciation given in the following guide is that used by the author. If the subject of the dictionary had been limited a specific dialect spoken in a specific geographical area, say, Bucharest, Romania, or Toronto, Canada, a definite set of rules for pronunciation might apply. However, the purpose of this dictionary, like the author's previous Learn Romani, is to create a tool that will be useful both in Europe, the Americas and anywhere else Kalderash-Romani is spoken.

The phonetic system employed in this dictionary is that used for the author's previously-published Learn Romani course for which this dictionary is compatible and the author has been using it since the 1960s with many other Romani speakers, in personal correspondence, and in published works. The entries in the dictionary come from the following sources; North-American Kalderash, which is spoken in Canada, the US and Latin America, augmented by words from mutually-intelligible European Kalderash dialects which the author assimilated while interacting with European Romani immigrants both socially and officially as a member of the Roma Community Centre in Toronto from 1997 to 2008. It is augmented by words encountered in email correspondence with native speakers in the US, Latin America and Europe. The entries thus represent a wide spectrum of Kalderash which would be understood throughout the Americas and in Europe by native speakers as the author has found it to be.

The phonetic system is based on English and designed for English speakers. This way, it avoids the use of consonants such as < j > for < y > which are confusing to speakers of English, Spanish and French in the Americas and also the use of unfamiliar diacritical marks employed in Romani phonetic systems based on European languages which would require either special fonts or foreign-language keyboards. The author's phonetic system has been successfully used by Romani speakers in Canada and the US who need to write Romani on a standard computer keyboard without the hassle of non-existent symbols. It was also used for the Kalderash Romani which appeared in the Roma Community Centre magazine, Romano Lil. The stress accents and other indicators employed in this phonetic system do not have to be used by native speakers. They have been used to assist the student to pronounce the dictionary entries and Examples of sentences. The phonetics have been designed with usability and practicality in mind. A teenage Romani student in high school in North America needs to be able to write Romani on a computer without needing special fonts or foreign keyboards while publishers producing material in Romani can well afford to do without cost-augmenting and unnecessary encumbrances that might inhibit publication. The accents and stress indicators used for this dictionary at the time of writing were available on Microsoft Word ‘United States – International Keyboard’ and are usually available in other default options on most computers. As already stated, they do not need to be used by native speakers.

It is impossible to give all the variations of sounds that might be encountered from Kalderash speakers across the world. Those interested in this area should consult the following: A Handbook of Vlax Romani, by Ian Hancock, Slavica Publishers, Inc., 1995, which is listed in the bibliography of useful sources and the applicable audio sources outlined in Gypsy Dialects by Edward Proctor which is also listed under the bibliography.

The following pronunciation guide, designed for this phonetic system, will enable the student to pronounce Kalderash Romani and to understand it when it is spoken if he or she follows the guidelines indicated.

Vowels

French and Spanish words are given as Examples of pronunciation where feasible to assist bilingual French speakers in Canada and bilingual Spanish speakers in the US and Canada.

 Grapheme   Description 
a More like Spanish ‘mañana’ but the < a > in English father is close. A is longer when it is stressed than when it is not. Example; Zha! ‘Go!’ and shurya ‘cutlery.’
â A very short form of the above < a > sound as in English `bat.' Example; âmpochíl ‘arbitrate.’
  In some Kalderash dialects, especially in France and North America, the final < e > in the dative case is shortened and sounds more like < â > is in mángâ for mánge or raklèskâ for raklêske.
ã The < aw > sound as in English ‘awful’. Example; kwãsa ‘scythe.’
e As in French ‘allé’ or the < ai > sound in English ‘pain.’ Examples; rakle ‘non-Romani boys,’ bakre ‘sheep.’
ê Between the < e > in English ‘bed’ and Spanish ‘huevo.’ Examples; amên ‘us’ mênshiya ‘ball.’ The < e > sound in English ‘men’ is very close. Some speakers pronounce this as a schwa sound which does not exist in English in which case kher ‘house’ sounds something like khûr.
i Like the < ee > sound in English ‘seem.’ Examples; iv ‘snow’ or rakli ‘non-Romani girl.’
î Close to the < i > sound in English ‘tin.’ Example; tînzhíri ‘frying pan, skillet.’
o The long < o > of English ‘home’ or French ‘eau.’ Example; raklo ‘non-Romani boy.’
ô Close to English sound in got, or Spanish ‘hombre.’ Example; drôm ‘road.’ In American Kalderash, many speakers pronounce the < ô > as < â > because of the influence of American pronunciation of English. Thus shôto ‘big shot’ becomes shâto just like American English ‘hot’ is often pronounced ‘hat’ by Americans. This should be avoided with European speakers of Kalderash.
u The long < oo > sound as in English ‘you.’ Spanish ‘luna’ or French ‘vous.’ Example; tu ‘you’ manush ‘male person, human being, elderly man.’
û A very short vowel sound like the < u > in English ‘under.’ It is a centralised and unrounded vowel sometimes represented in Romani by < ï > or < ü > with an umlaut as a diacritic. Examples; zûn (zün) ‘saddle,’ atvtsûn (avtsïn) ‘steel.’ The English < u > as in ‘under’ can be used in the meantime. See also Hancock, I., 1995 p.45, rrïnza ‘chitterlings.’
y When < y > used in this alphabet as a ‘glide’ or ‘semi-vowel’ it is a short < y > sound which often replaces the terminal long < ee > sound in words like bakri ‘ewe’ or sapní ‘female snake’ when these singular nouns become plurals as in bakrya and sapnya and in their oblique declensions such as bakryánsa and sapnyánsa.
  In English, with words ending in < ia >, the pronunciation convention is to pronounced words like Maria as if it were written Maríya ignoring the obvious glide in the actual pronunciation. In the dictionary, Romani words like síniya ‘chair’ do not use the English convention of sínia but include the < y > as a glide to properly represent the phonetics of Kalderash since the alphabet used in the dictionary is totally phonetic and cannot employ English non-phonetic spelling conventions. When < y > is used as a consonant as in yalovítsa ‘sterile women or female animal’ it has the English value of < y > as in ‘yellow.’ When it immediately follows a consonant, it is a glide as in grasnya ‘mares.’ When used between two vowels it has the linking value of a glide as in the name Maria but written as Maríya to indicate the linking glide as in síniya ‘table.’


Vowel Stress

Kalderash Romani and Vlax-Romani dialects in general normally place the stress on the last vowel in the word as in baxtalo ‘lucky’ or wudar ‘door’. No stress indicators will be shown for these entries. When the stress falls on any vowel other than the last, it will be indicated as follows: láda ‘trunk, chest,’ (stress on the first vowel) masári ‘butcher’ (stress on the second vowel), barvalo ‘rich’ where the stress falls on the third or last vowel and which does not need to be indicated. Stress position can change depending on where the word appears in a sentence. We can have a sentences like: Wo si manush barvalo ‘He is a wealthy man,’ (stress on last vowel, barvaló) or O bárvalo manush mulo ‘The wealthy man died.’ (In this second Example; the stress in < bárvalo > is on the first vowel not the last. The sentences which accompany many of the entries will show how this occurs in speech patterns.

When the diacritics â, ã, ê, î, ô, û, are used to indicate vowel sound, the stress accents will be indicated, even if the stress falls on the last vowel as in mômêlí ‘candle’ unless the vowel marked with the pronunciation mark is to be stressed. Examples; mênshiya ‘ball’ (stress falls on the first vowel), pônyáva ‘carpet,’ (stress falls on the second vowel of the word and drômorró ‘small, narrow road.’ (stress falls on the third or last vowel). In a very few words, all vowels in the word may be â, ã, ê, î, ô, or û, and in this case, the vowel to be stressed will appear not with the accent < ^ > but with the French grave accent < ` >. Example; vôrdòn ‘caravan’ where both vowels are pronounced < ô >.

Falling Diphthongs

 Grapheme   Description 
ai Similar to the sound of English ‘high’ or ‘rye.’ Example; nai ‘finger.’ When the nominative noun nai has a case ending added to it the diphthong usually becomes < aiy- > with the case ending added. Example; naiyêsa ‘with the finger.’ The < y > is a glide between the diphthong and the added case ending. Note: Case endings are covered in the grammatical synopsis of this dictionary.
ei Rarely used, mainly as an interjection (Hey, watch out!) or in songs. It sounds like the < ey > in English ‘hey!’ without the < h >. Example; Éi, shavále! ‘Hey, Romani boys!’
oi Close to the sound of English ‘oyster’ or ‘boy.’ Example; gunoi. ‘rubbish.’ When words with this sound have case endings added the < oi > becomes < oiy- > with the case ending added. Example; gunoiyêsa ‘with the garbage.’
ui A difficult sound for English speakers, like the ouille > in French ratatouille. Example; mui ‘mouth.’ As with < ai > and < oi >, the < ui > becomes < uiy- > when the nominative has an oblique or case ending added to it. Example; muiya ‘mouths.’

Note: In words like shey ‘Romani girl, daughter,’ and dey ‘mother’ there is a slight < -y > sound after the < -e >. This is not a diphthong.

Rising Diphthongs

 Grapheme   Description 
ya Typical in plural endings of feminine nouns. Gazhya ‘non-Romani women,’ or fyal ‘type.’
yi Typically in rroiyi ‘spoon’.
yo Typical in passive and athematic verb conjugations. Baryol ‘He/she grows bigger.’

Stress of Diphthongs

When diphthongs are stressed, the stress is shown on the first letter of the double vowel but the double vowel is stressed as a single sound. Example; cháiniko (chái-niko), ‘tea pot.’ When not stressed, no stress mark appears. Example; raikano (rai-kanó) ‘elegant,’ where stress falls on last final vowel.

Consonants

 Grapheme   Description 
b Close to English < b > Examples; beshel ‘he/she sits’ and basmáli ‘shawl’.
c Not used by itself in this phonetic system except in < ch >. In Europe, many Romani phonetic systems use this sound to represent the < ts > sound as in ‘itself.’ of this phonetic system.
ch A hard < ch > sound not like English ‘cheer’ but more like ‘chatter’ as in chiriklo ‘male bird.’ There are actually two < ch > sounds in Kalderash Romani, one < chh > is more aspirated than the other. (See Hancock, I, p. 39). Many Kalderash sub-dialects change this aspirated < chh > sounds to a < sh > sound. In the dictionary the alternate < chh > sound is not used. Instead, it appears as < sh > which is common in North-American Kalderash and in many European Kalderash and related dialects. So what will be chhavo or chhav ‘Romani boy’ in some European dialects will be written as shavo or shav in the dictionary. See < sh > following in this pronunciation guide.
d A dental < d > as in French or Spanish with the tongue touching the back of the top teeth. Examples; dav ‘I give’ diwáno ‘meeting, discussion.’
dj Close to the < j > sound of English ‘Jack.’ Examples; djédjêsh ‘train’ djéla ‘thing, matter’ djungalo ‘ugly.’ Some speakers pronounce this sound more like a < dy > as in < dyéla > for djéla while with others, it is closer to a < dzh > sound.
f Close to English. Examples; fárba ‘paint,’ fakalêtso ‘rolling pin.’
g Hard < g > as in English ‘got’. Examples; gitára ‘guitar,’ galav ‘saddle bag’. In this phonetic system, this sound should never be pronounced as in English ‘George.’ (See < dj > preceding.)
h Like English < h > in hammer. Example; harmasári ‘stallion.’
j Not used in this phonetic system except in combination with < d > in < dj >. In European-Romani phonetic systems, the < j > is often used to represent the consonant < y > as in ‘yellow.’
k Close to the English sound in ‘cat.’ A hard < k > sound, not like English ‘kismet.’ Example; kukurúzo ‘Indian corn.’
kh An aspirated < k > sound like the < kh > in workhorse. Examples; kher ‘house’ or khaini ‘chicken.’
l Closer to the English < l > in ‘glue’ than in ‘lend.’ Examples; lav ‘I take,’. alav ‘word.’
ly This is actually a single sound in Romani. Example; raklya ‘non-Romani girls.’ It is close to the < ll > in Castilian Spanish as in llamar or the < gl > in Italian voglio. Standard Canadian/American English < li > in ‘valiant’ or ‘Valium’ is close.
m English value as in ‘mother.’ Examples; mobíli ‘automobile’ mômêlí ‘candle.’
n English < n > can be used here but in Romani, it is usually a dental sound with the tongue touching the upper front teeth. Examples; kána ‘when’ nanári ‘pineapple.’ In some Kalderash dialects. especially in North America, the < -n > is sometimes dropped in words like rani or Rromani which become raiyi ‘lady’ and Rromayi as in Rromayi buki ‘Romani business.’
ng When < n > and < g > appear together in a Romani word, they are pronounced as in English ‘mango‘ and never like two separate sounds as in ‘man go.’ Examples; bangyarev ‘I bend,’ lêngo ‘theirs,’ bêng ‘devil.’
ny When < n > is followed by the glide or semi-vowel < y > it becomes one sound like the Spanish < ñ > in mañana or the < ny > in English ‘canyon.’ Examples; sapnya ‘female snakes,’ (plural of sapni).
p Like English < p > in ‘spot.’ Examples; pái ‘water’ and papírya ‘documents.’ It must be born in mind that < p > in English, has more of an aspirate sound that it has in Kalderash, French or Spanish.
ph An aspirated Do not pronounce it as an < f > as in English ‘phone.’ This < ph > sound in Romani is close to the English sound in ‘haphazard.’ Examples; phúrdav ‘I blow’ and phurt ‘footbridge.’
q Not used in this orthography.
r Close to Spanish < r > as in ‘Pedro,’ and made with the top of the tongue. The < r > must be clearly heard, not slurred or drawled as is common in American, Canadian and British English. Examples; rai ‘gentleman’ ródav ‘I seek, search.’ Many American Roma, whose Romani is influenced by American sounds, when writing words like bari on Internet chat lines, write this as < badi < because of the tapped < r > in American English. Example; Woy see badi koodva. for Woi si bári kúrva. ‘She is a real bitch.’ Many non-Romani speakers often hear this < r > as English < l > and thus hear zalzáilo for Kalderash zalzáiro ‘acid.’
rr In some Kalderash dialects, for Example; in Canada , the US and parts of Latin America, in France and other countries of Europe, the Kalderash < rr > is pronounced from the throat (a guttural) like German roust or the Continental French < r > as in rendez-vous. It should sound like an uvular < rr > made when a person gargles. Examples; Rrom ‘Romani man,’ or ‘husband;’ Rromni, ‘Romani woman’ or ‘wife;’ rrai ‘switch, can’ burr ‘bush, thicket.’ Ask a native speaker to say rai ‘gentleman’ and rrai ‘cane/switch’ for the differences in sound.
    In North America and in some western European Kalderash dialects, the guttural < rr > can affect the vowels < e >, < i > and to a lesser extent, < û >, when they immediately follow the < rr >. In this case, múrre ‘mine’ becomes múrrü, sheyorri ‘young girl’ becomes sheyorrü or shyórrü and bizerrûwo ‘embroidery’ becomes bizerrüwo. (See also < û > in the vowel section preceding this section for explanation of < ü > and < ï > which do not appear in the dictionary. Those learning Romani do not have to use these sounds since European Roma who do not use them are perfectly understood by speakers of American Kalderash who do use them. They, in turn, however, may have difficulty understanding native speakers of North-American Kalderash who often say shyorrï for European-Kalderash sheyorri ‘young girl.’)
    In some other Kalderash and Vlax-Romani dialects the < rr > sound is often retroflexed or trilled. The < rr > must be clearly heard and not slurred. It is not the same sound as < r > given above in this alphabet which is a different sound. (See Hancock, I, 1995, p.9/10. For beginners, a clearly pronounced < r > will do for both sounds until they can hear these sounds from native speakers or from a cassette or CD. In Britain, the Scottish < r > sound, while not exactly the Romani sound, would be better than the standard drawled or slurred English < r > as in ‘Robert.’ Examples; rroiyi ‘spoon’ rrátsa ‘duck.’
s Similar to English < s > in ‘sea.’ This is never slurred to become a < z > sound as it is in English, for Example; the final < s > in ‘strangers,’ or the < s > in ‘business.’ Examples; sim ‘I am,’ sap, ‘male snake,’ skamin ‘chair.’
sh The English sound as in ‘shears’ will be close enough. There are at least two different < sh > sounds in Romani, one as in shêl ‘one hundred’ and shîl meaning ‘cold, flue.’ In shêl meaning one hundred, the tongue is forward on the palate but in shîl, meaning ‘cold, flue,’ it is curled backwards towards the throat. Beginners can ignore this difference until they become familiar with the sounds from native speakers or recordings. Many European speakers often pronounce the sound as they do the < sh > sound in the non-Romani language they also speak. Examples; shib ‘tongue, language’ shoro ‘head’ shoshoi ‘male rabbit.’ The slight differences in sound will not prevent the student from being understood or to understand spoken Romani.
t A dental < t > sound and unaspirated (without the puff of air) like the English < t > in ‘top.’ But in Romani, the tongue should touch the back of the upper front teeth. Examples; tu ‘you’ and tudkála ‘coal tar.’
th An aspirated dental < t > sound suggesting a puff of air after the < t > something like the combination < th > in English ‘hothouse’. This sound should never be pronounced like < th > in English ‘think’ or as in thud meaning a loud noise. The < th > sound as in English ‘think.’ does not exist in Romani ands many speakers pronounce English ‘them’ as ‘dem.’ Examples; thud ‘milk,’ thuv ‘smoke’ and thagar ‘ruler.’
ts This is a single sound in Romani like the < ts > in English ‘itself’ or in Italian pizza. Examples; tsêra ‘tent,’ tsigára ‘cigarette,’ and tsirratsítsa ‘pittance.’
v This is a troublesome sound in Romani. Some ‘authorities’ on Romani admit to only one sound for what I have listed as a separate < v > and < w >. In my opinion, this is not justified by what I have been hearing for decades from native speakers from many countries and regions.
    Kalderash < v > is not a hard < v > like English ‘volatile’ but between English < v > and < w >, a softer < v > than in English. Not all Kalderash speakers pronounce it the same. With some, especially in the former Yugoslavia and in Hungary, a definite < v > can be clearly heard due to phonetic osmosis from the host-culture language as in voliv ‘I love,’ and vorbiv, ‘I talk.’ In Romanian Kalderash and among many North-American and French Kalderash speakers, the same words sounds like woliw or even ualiw, and worbiv. This become evident when native speakers pronounce the final < v > in the first person singular of verbs, for example, beshav ‘I reside’ which often sounds like besháw, or zhav ‘I go’ which sounds like zhao with a diphthong as in Italian ciao.
    When a word is regularly pronounced with a < v > sound, it will be indicated. Examples; vorrúto ‘disgusting’ or vádra ‘bucket.’ In the dictionary, I have used both < v > and < w > depending on how I most often hear the sound from speakers with whom I interact and how I normally pronounce the word in question.
w See entry for < v > above. When a word is almost always pronounced with the English value for < w > it will be indicated by this sound. Examples; wudar ‘door’ and wúlitsa ‘street.’
x A sound from the throat (guttural) like the < ch > in Scottish loch, Spanish justicia or German Achtung. Examples; xas ‘we eat,’ xoxavel ‘He is lying.’
y Pronounced like English ‘yellow’ when it is used as a consonant. Examples; Yádo ‘Hades’ and yalakráno ‘scorpion.’ See < y > under vowels for further explanation.
z Like English ‘zeppelin.’ Examples; zalzáiro ‘acid’ and zumin ‘soup.’
zh This sound is like the < zh > in ‘Doctor. Zhivago.’ It exists in English but is shown by different letters, for Example; the < z > in ‘azure’ or the < s > in ‘pleasure.’ Examples; zhav ‘I go,’ zhanav ‘I know,’ French < j > as in Jean.

....

Kalderash – English dictionary

A

ába adv already, hardly, yet var of yába qv

abazhúra nf lampshade

abíya nf abbey

abiyado/abyado nm newly-married groom: nf abiyadi: nm/pl abiyade recently-married couple

abiyash nm abbot: nf abiyáshka prioress

abiyav/abyav nm marriage, wedding, wedding party/reception

abiyavêsko gen/adj marriage, nuptial; abiyavêsko-khelimos wedding dance see also kólo nm

Abrílo nm April

Abrílone adv in April

Adámo nm Adam (see also Dámo)

adaptóri nm adaptor, adaptor plug

adînko/adênko adj/adv deep, see also dur-tele adv

adînkomós nm depth

adînkonès adv deeply

adjénda nf agenda

adjénto nm male agent: nf adjentáika see also yagánto nm

adjéntsiya nf agency (Eur)

adjudikatóri nm adjudicator: nf adjudikatórka (Can) Note: Adjudicators make decisions in refugee claims at the Canadian Immigration and Refugee Board (IRB) after reviewing the case and conducting an in camera hearing with the claimant and his/her legal counsel.

administratóri nm administrator: nf administratórka

administrátsiya nf administration

admirálo nm admiral (Mil)

ádo nm advertisement (Am); Thodem o ádo ánde hêrtíya. I placed the ad in the paper.

adoptil vt 1) adopt: pp/adj adoptime 2) v/refl adoptíl-pe be adopted; Adoptisáilo Gazhêndar. He was adopted by non-Roma.

adoptimos nm adoption

adréso nm address; adréso-poshtáko postal/mailing address

advertaizil vt 1) advertise: pp/adj advertzaizime (Am) 2) v/refl advertaizíl-pe be advertised; Chi mai bikíndyon le mobílya te na advertaizín-pe ánde l' hêrtíyi. The cars will never sell if they are not advertised in the papers.

afidévito nm affidavit: pl afidévitsi

afirmátsiya nf affirmation, oath of affirmation see also solax nf

afísha nf poster, wall poster (Eur)

Áfrichi nf/pl Africa, Africas; Manai but Rroma ánde l' Áfrichi. There are not many Roma in the Africas/African countries.

Áfrika nf Africa

Afrikáko gen/adj of Africa, African

Afrikanítska nf African language (Swahili, Somali, etc): pl Afrikanítski

Afrikanítsko adj African

Afrikáno/Afrikánto nm African: nf Afrikánka

ages adv 1) today 2) nm today

agesésko gen/adj today's

agesuno adj current, daily, up-to-date

ágila nf eagle (Am from Sp)

agor nm conclusion, end

agoral/agora prep from the edge/end (of); Pelo agoral e síniya. It fell from/off the edge of the table. Avilo agoral e líniya. He came from the end of the line.

agore prep to the end/edge (of), up to/as far as the end (of); Gêlèm agore e líniya. I went to the end of the line

agorêste prep at/to the end, towards the end

agorimáste prep at/to the end; Das-ame sláva ka l' agorimáste le bershêstar. We will have a feast at the end of the year.

agorimos nm 1) conclusion, end, termination 2) destination

agoruno adj 1) end, last (in line) 2) outside (edge), marginal 3) last man: nf agoruni

agorutno adj var of agoruno adj qv

agrikultúra nf agriculture, farming

ai conj and, also, and so, so, var of hai qv; Mothodyas mánge te zhávtar ai gêlémtar. He told me to leave, and I left. Tu ai me shai zhas tehára. You and I can go tomorrow.

Ái! interj Oh!, Alas!; Ái, Dévla! Oh God!

áiso nm icecube

áka exclam/adv Here!, Behold!; Rromále, áka avel O Stévo! Behold, Roma, here comes Steve!

akadémiko nm/neolog academic: pl akadémichi: nf akademikútsa

akademikósko/akademichêngo gen/adj/neolog academic

akademíya nf academy

akana adv now, at this instant, immediately, right now, right away; Si akana pansh bersh ke beshas ándo fóro. It is now five years that we have lived/we live in the city.

akana thai pórma adv/phr now and then, occasionally

akanak adv now, at this instant; Eur var of akana qv

akanash adv by and by, right away, soon, very soon, presently, in a short time

akána-sig adv soon, very soon, presently, not long from now, by and by

akanutnes adv currently, presently

akanutno adj contemporary, current, present

akaring/karing prep toward/towards, this way, by here/by this way, over here, by this way; Nashlótar akaring o wêrsh. He ran off towards the forest.

akatála exclam/adv us with nom/prons Behold! Akatála-me, Rromále, areslem! Behold me, Roma, I have arrived! Akatála-wo, o dilo, dikh so kerel! Behold him, the fool, look at what he's doing! Akatála-woi, sar khelél-pe! Behold her, how she dances!

akathar adv from here

akathe adv here (Eur)

akhardo pp/adj called, invited, summoned

akhárdyol vi 1) be summoned, called, invited: pp/adj akhardilo; ~ ánde kris be indicted; Akhárdilem ánde kris. I have been indicted. 2) be named

akharel vt/i 1) call, invite, summon: pp/adj akhardo 2) call, name 3) vt/phr ~ ánde kris indict, summon to appear at a trial 4) comp/vi ~ kris call for a trial 5) v/refl akharél-pe be named, called; Sar akharél-pe? How does he call himself/what is he called?

akharimásko-lil comp/nm letter of invitation, subpoena, summons

akharimásko-sámno comp/nm/neolog exclamation point

akharimos nm 1) appeal, call, invitation 2) summons

akhor nm 1) nut 2) stye (in eye)

akhorin nf nut bush/tree

áko conj if; If he has enough money, he can buy the car. Áko si lês dósta love, shai kinel o mobíli.

akompanimos nm accompaniment (Mus)

akompanyash nm accompanist (Mus): nf akompanyáshka

akórdo nm agreement, accord (Eur); Sim de akórdo túsa. I agree/am in agreement with you.

aksidênto mn accident: adv/phr po aksidênto by accident, accidentally

aktivísmo nm activism

aktivísta nm/nf activist

ákto nm 1) act (play) 2) act of law, Bill, deed, order, statute, law in force, court order

ákto-krisáko comp/nm court order

aktóri nm actor, film star: nf aktórka actress, film star

áktsiya nf action, initiative

akushádyol vi be cussed out, insulted, sworn at/vilified: pp/adj akushadilo; Akushádilem. I was insulted, cussed out, vilified, put down.

akushavel vt cause/instigate smbdy to be berated/cursed/insulted/profaned/cussed out/verbally castigated: pp/adj akushado

akushel vt 1) blaspheme, profane, swear at, use foul language: pp/adj akushlino; Akushav tumáre Devlên. I blaspheme your gods/I curse everything you hold dear(insult). 2) berate, chastise verbally, cuss out, scold, reprimand, vilify 3) v/refl akushén-pe swear at each other/one another; Akushliné-pe thai mardé-pe. They cussed each other out and came to blows/fought each other. Ashundem le te akushén-pe. I heard them cussing each other out.

akushimásko gen/adj blasphemous, insulting

akushimos nm 1) swearing, cussing, exchange of insults 2) blasphemy

akushlino pp/adj blasphemed, cussed out, scolded, vilified

al vi cont of avel vt/i 1) become 2) come; Chi mangel te al. He doesn't want to become/come.

alabástra nf alabaster

alabastráko gen/adj made of alabaster

alárma nf 1) alarm, burglar alarm, fire alarm 2) comp/vt/i del ~ give alarm; comp/vt/i 3) comp/vi lel ~ take alarm

alav nm word (Eur) see more common swáto nm

alavári nm/neolog 1) dictionary 2) lexicon

Albanézo nm Albanian man: nf Albanezáika

Albanítska nf Albanian (Lang)

Albanítsko adj Albanian

albiyátsa nf glaucoma; Si lês albiyátsa. He has glaucoma.

albiyátsi nf/pl cataracts

alduwil vt bless: pp/adj alduwime (Eur); Alduwisar tut! Bless you!

alduwimos nm blessing (Eur)

ãle v/imp/s 1) Here!; Ãle, le tsîrrá xabe ke but si-ma! Here, take a little food because I have a lot! 2) v/imp/pl ãlen; Ãlen, Shavále, dósta si! Here, boys, there's enough of it! (to go around, food, beer, etc).

Alemánya nf Germany see also Nyampsíya nf and Nyámpso nm

Alemanyáko gen/adj of Germany, German

alfabéto nm alphabet; Chi zhanel lêsko alfabéto. He doesn't know his alphabet/He is illiterate. Nai amên afabéto Rromano. We have no Romani alphabet.

-ali prod suff added to cardinal number roots to form feminine nouns indicating number one, number two, number fifty, etc; yekhali number one, duwali number two, pindali number fifty

almanáko nm almanac

almándo nm almond (nut)

alo! interj hello! (usually on the telephone)

alokátsiya nf allocation

alol/alosarel vt 1) choose, pick, pick and choose, select: pp/adj alome/alosardo; Alosar túke sogodi kai plachal tut. Choose for yourself whichever one pleases you. 2) elect; Alosarde pênge prezidênto. They elected themselves a president. 3) prefer 4) sort, sort out 5) v/refl a) alól-pe/alosarél-pe appoint/elect oneself, choose oneself, nominate oneself, select oneself b) be chosen/favoured/preferred/selected c) be nominated, elected d) be appointed by consensus e) be sorted out, sort itself/themselves out; Mek te alón-pe! Let them sort it out!

Álom ! interj used in Hungarian Vlax-Romani songs as in; Álom! Álom! Nai na nai! This is a nonsensical insert like tra-la-la in English songs.

alomáski-lísta comp/nf election list/slate

alomáta nm/pl choices, selections, list of meals on a menu

alome pp/adj 1) chosen, picked, selected 2) elected 3) favorite, favoured 4) preferred

alomos nm 1) choice, favorite, preference, option, selection 2) election

alosardo nm 1) chosen one, man chosen, favoured, elected: nf alosardi

alosarimos nm election, selection

alotóri nm elector, voter: alotórka nf

alserída nf ulcer

alseridil vt 1) create an ulcer, ulcerate: pp/adj alseridime 2) v/refl alseridíl-pe become ulcerated, develop an ulcer/ulcers

altári/altéri nm altar

alúmino nm aluminum

aluminósko gen/adj made of aluminum

Alxeríya nf Algeria

Alxire nm Pope: pl Alxireyi

amal nm male friend (Eur): nf amalin/amalni

amalano adj cordial, friendly (Eur)

amalipe/amalimos nm friendship (Eur)

amaro pron/poss ~ nominalized pron our, ours; Amáro kher si. This is our house. Rrom amarêndar si. He is one of our Roma.

amatóri nm amateur: nf amatórka

ambasáda nf embassy

ambasadóri nm ambassador

amblado pp/adj hung, hanged, suspended

ambládyol vi 1) be hanged, executed by hanging: pp/adj ambladilo 2) be dangled/hung/ suspended

amblal nf torch, firebrand, flambeau; Dyam-yag le amblala te ródas la ándo têmnomós. We lit torches to find her in the darkness.

amblavel vt/i 1) hang, execute by hanging: pp/adj amblado; Amblade lês katar o kasht. They hanged him from a tree. 2) dangle, hang, hang up, suspend; Ambladyas pêsko kopúto. He hung up his coat. Ambladyas o patréto po zudo. He hung the picture on the wall. 3) depend on 4) v/refl amblavél-pe hang oneself, commit suicide by hanging oneself; Ambladyás-pe ándo wêrsh. He hanged himself in the forest.

amblayimásko-kasht comp/nm gallows

amblayimos nm 1) hanging, execution by hanging 2) suspension

amblayitóri nm 1) hangman 2) hanger, clothes' hanger

amboldári nm 1) tap, tap and wrench combination (tool for forming a threaded screw hole) 2) Spanish windlass

ambóldel vt/i 1) gyrate, orbit, pirouette, revolve, rotate, screw (cap), spin, turn, turn/twist around: pp/adj amboldino 2) give back, return, reverse, turn around, turn back; Sóstar ambóldes? Why are your turning around/back? Amboldem o cháso. I turned the clock back. Amboldem o mobíli. I reversed the car. Amboldyas pêske swáturya. He changed his testimony/reversed what he/she had said previously. Ambóldes múrre swáturya. You are twisting my words around 3) give back, reciprocate 4) push back, recoil 5) comp/vt/i ~ pálpale a) retrace one's steps, turn back again b) bounce back, come back, rebound; Láko arman amboldyas pálpale láte. Her curse rebounded back to her. 6) v/refl ambóldel-pe give back, go back, return, turn oneself around, reverse one's direction, revolve, spin around, turn, orbit, be orbiting, be reciprocated; Amboldisáwo hai dikh pála túte! Turn around and look behind you!

amboldil vt 1) reverse, turn smth around: pp/adj amboldime; Amboldisar o mobíli te zhas pálpale! Turn the car around so we can go back! 2) churn, turn; Amboldinisáilo lêsko gi. His stomach turned. 3) v/refl amboldíl-pe turn oneself around; Amboldisár-tut te dikhes kon si pála túte! Turn around so you can see who is behind you!

amboldimáski-púshka comp/nf 1) revolver 2) Gatling gun, minigun

amboldimásko gen/adj rotating, revolving, spinning

amboldimásko-wudár comp/nm 1) revolving door 2) revolving refugee claims (Can)

amboldimos nm 1) about face, pirouette, reversal, rotation, turn over, turn around 2) recoil

amboldino pp/adj 1) inside out, backwards, back-to-front, turned around, reversed 2) inverted, rolled over, turned over, upside down

ambolditóri nm 1) swivel table/plate, turntable 2) weather vane

âmbréla nf umbrella

ambrol nm pear

ambrolin nf pear tree

ambulántsiya nf ambulance

ame pron/nom we ~ pron/acc us, ouselves (cont of amên qv)

amên pron/acc/pl us, ourselves

amên sya pron/pl/acc all of us, us all; Dosharel amên sya, He blames us all.

amênde pron/prep to us, to our place; Chi mai avel amênde. He never comes around any more.

Amérika nf 1) United States of America 2) America (continent): nf/pl Américhi (the) Americas, all countries on the American continent.

Amerikáko 1) gen/adj of America/USA; tiléri-Amerikáke American dollars 2) native to America/USA; Rrom Amerikácha American Roma

Amerikanítska nf American English (Lang)

Amerikanítsko adj American; Amerikanítsko televízhono American television

Amerikanitskones adv like the Americans, in the American way, in the American ``language.''

Amerikáno nm male American/American man: nf Amerikánka

amilai adv this summer

Ámin! interj Amen!

amíra nf 1) oath, vow 2) curse (Am) var of arman qv

amnári nm 1) tinder box 2) flintlock mechanism to start a fire 3) cigarette lighter

amplafikatóri nm amplifier, speaker box (Mus)

ámplo nm amplifier, speaker box (Mus)

ámpo nm amp

âmpochíl vt 1) reach an understanding/agreement/compromise, reconcile, settle (dispute), arrange (compromise): pp/adj âmpochimé 2) arbitrate 3) v/refl âmpochíl-pe reconcile oneself, be reconciled, reach a compromise/agreement/amicable solution, arbitrate

âmpochimós nm agreement, arbitration, compromise, reconciliation

âmpochitóri nm arbitrator

amporádji nm/pl amperage

ampuyil vt 1) breed (animals): pp/adj ampuyime 2) v/refl ampuyíl-pe breed, mate

ampuyimos nm 1) breeding/mating of animals 2) young born of animal mating, litter, brood, offspring

ampuyitóri nm breeder of animals: nf ampuyitórka

amran nm see arman nm

amrandel vt 1) curse, damn: pp/adj amrandino 2) amrandel-pe curse/damn oneself

amunátsiya nf ammunition

amuzil vt 1) amuse, entertain: pp/adj amuzime 2) v/refl amuzíl-pe amuse oneself

amuzimos nm amusement, entertainment

Amyúla nf a A mythical country in Canadian/American Romani folktales where the Roma are claimed to have originated. The capital is called Rusalíno which might be connected etymologically with Jerusalem in folklore.

an prep in, to see ándo/ánde; Phendem lês wórta an lêsko mui. I told him straight to/in his face.

anasétiko nm 1) anesthetic 2) comp/vt del ~ anesthetize

anav nm name

anavyárdyol vi be given a name, be named: pp/adj anavyardilo

anavyarel vt 1) call, give a name to, name: pp/adj anavyardo 2) v/refl anavyarél-pe name oneself

anavyarimos nm ceremony of naming a child, naming

anchépo nm/arch camphor, smelling salts

ánd êkh dáta adv/phr all of a sudden, immediately, right away, suddenly (Am); Peló pe mánde ánd êkh dáta kon sas. I suddenly realized who he was. Músai te zhas ánd êkh dáta. We must leave immediately.

ánd êkh than adv/phr all at once, together, united (Am); Pálpale ánd-êkh-than-le. They are (back) together. Músai te beshas ánd ekh tan ánde kakya buki. We must stand united in this issue. Mai ekh dáta ánd-ekh-than-le. They are back together again.

and prep in, into (us when it is not followed by a def art); Lêm la ánd angáli. I took her in (an) embrace/I embraced her.

ánda e pêrvina adv/phr from the beginning

ánda e pêrvina zhi-ka o gor adv/phr from beginning to end

ánda godya conj because of that, for that reason, that's why

ánda kakya conj because of this, for this reason, this is why

ánda prep/conj 1) about, from, concerning, out of, because of, due to, surrounding, through, for; Avilo ánda o wêrsh. He came out of the forest. Ánda láte me meráva. Because of her, I am dying. Ánda gadya buki sa le Rroma xan-pe. Because of that business, all the Roma are arguing. Shéyo! Ánda túte me meráva. Oh Romani girl! Because of you I am dying/dying for love of you. (Can Kalderash song) 2) of; Yekh ánda l' Rrom Vankoveréshti mothodyas ma. One of the Vancouver Roma told me. Dyas mánge do-pash ánda l' love. He gave me half of the money. Note: Used in this way, ánda can replace the use of the ablative case as in; Dyás mánge do-pash le lovêndar. He gave me half of the money.

ánda sóste comp/adv about what, from what, for what reason, why; Ánda sóste mangel te dikhel man? About what does he want to see me?

ándar Eur var of ánda prep/conj qv

ánde adv/prep 1) in, inside, into, during used before feminine nouns and plurals of both genders; ánde sóba in/inside the room, ánde lênge posukya into their pockets. Kheldyás-pe ánde sláva. She danced during the feast. Zhal po lóvo ánde l' wêrsh. He hunts in the forests.

ánde kol gesa adv/phr back then, in those days

ánde l' prep/cont of ánde le used with pural nouns; ánde l' wêrshènde into the forests; Ándo marimos, le Rroma garadé-pe ánde l' wêrshènde. During the war, the Roma hid themselves in the forests.

ánde pêrvina id/comp/adv in the beginning, originally, to begin with

ánde phuv id/prep into the ground. Note: This idiom is used in many expressions as follows; Sovél-pe ánde phuv. He is sleeping himself to death. Piyél-pe ánde phuv. He is drinking himself to death. Yekh ges, thav lês ánde phuv. On day I'll put him into the ground/kill him. Dyas-pe ánde phuv. He drove himself to death.

ánde saré l' thana adv/phr in all places, everywhere

ánde wúrma adv/phr 1) at last, at the end, finally, in the end 2) late, towards the end

andesára 1) nf evening, dusk, nightfall 2) adv de andesára since evening; Chi dkhlem lês de andesára. I haven't seen him since the evening.

andívo nm chicory, endive

ándo adv/prep 1) during, in, inside, into used before masculine nouns only; ándo wêrsh in the forest 2) during; Ándo marimos, nashti kerásas buki hai bokhalyósas. During the war, we were not able to work and we were starving. Dyas ándo kher pa e filástra. He got into the house through the window.

ándo bírro adj/phr in debt, indebted

ándo gado cháso id/phr in this hour, at this time, hour of judgement; Te marel tu o Del ándo gádo cháso! May God punish you in this hour of judgement!

ándo gláso adv/phr in tune; Tyi gitára nai ándo gláso. Your guitar is not in tune.

ándo párno ges adv/phr in broad daylight, in plain view

ándo rat id in the blood, through heredity; Si amên musíka ándo rat. We have music in the (our) blood. Gadya familíya si la turbyála ándo rat. That family has insanity in the blood/has produced many people who were insane.

ándo sádo id/prep in the garden, orchard, courting; Seráv-man kána sámas ándo sádo. I remember when we were in the garden/courting.

ándo than adv/conj in place of, instead of; Me zhav ándo lêsko than. I am going in his place/instead of him. Ándo than te zhas ages, zhas tehára. Instead of going today, let's go tomorrow.

ándo wast adv/phr/id 1) in hand, in one's possession, under one's ownership; Sodya love si tut ándo wast? How much money do you have in hand/immediately available? Si lês mobílya ándo wast kai mangel te bikinel. He has cars in hand that he wants to sell. Si ánde l' Babêsko wast. Bob has it in his possession. 2) id responsibility; Akana si ándo tíro wast. Now it's in your hands/Now it's up to you/Now it's your responsibility. 3) in custody; Ánde l' rángo wast-lo. He's in police custody. 4) comp/vt/i del ~ give into custody, hand over, surrender; Dyas le love ándo wast. He handed over the money. 5) comp/v/refl del-pe ~ give oneself into custody, surrender, turn oneself in

andral adv/prep from within/inside, inside, out of; Ashundem e muzíka andral. I heard the music from inside. Avilo andral o kher. He emerged from inside the house.

andre/andrû prep/adv 1) aboard, in, inside, on board, on the inside; Háide andre! Come in/inside! Si wárekon andre amári organizatsiya kai kerel problémi. There is somebody inside our organization who is creating problems. Kon si andre o hãlo? Who is inside the hall? Chi zhanav sodya zhene si andre. I don't know how many people are inside. 2) aboard, on board. Wo sas andre, ándo vapóri. He was on board, in the ship.

andrezhil vt 1) tempt pp/adj andrezhime 2) v/refl andrezhíl-pe be tempted, tempt oneself

andrezhimos nm temptation

andruno adj 1) internal, inside, inner: irreg/fem in andruwi 2) insider, inside man: nf andruwi 3) inside, interior; o andruno la khangeriyáko the inside/interior of the church

anel vt/i 1) bring, carry, deliver, fetch, get: pp/adj ando; An mánge pênsilo! Bring/get me a ballpoint pen! An mánge pái! Get me (some) water! Zha an mánge skára! Go get me a ladder! Anas la ándo vôrdòn! We'll bring it in the station wagon! O gazho andyas o xabe katar o Chinamáno. The man has delivered the food from the Chinese restaurant. 2) ~ pai bring water, irrigate 3) v/refl anél-pe look like, resemble, take after; Anél-pe pêske dades. He resembles his father. Pe kãste anél-pe? Whom does he look like?

angáli nf 1) embrace; Lyas la ánd angáli. He took her in an embrace. 2) lap; Beshélas pe lêski angláli. She was sitting on his lap. 3) del-pe ánd ~ embrace, hug; Diné-pe ánd angáli. They embraced/hugged each other.

angalíya nf tobacco pipe

angar do-pash phabardo nm/phr coke

angar nm coal

angarári nm fireman (on a train), stoker

angarêngi-tudkála comp/nf coal tar

angarêsko /angarêngo gen/adj/s/pl coal, related to coal; bov-angarêngo coal stove

angár-kashtuno comp/nm charcoal

angár-kovlo comp/nm bituminous coal

angár-zoralo comp/nm anthracite coal

ángelo/ángyelo nm angel: pl ánzhelya: nf angeláika: pl ánzheláiki

ángla prep before, in front of, ahead of, preceding; Zha ángla mánde! Go in front of me/ahead of me! Ángla mánde dui droma, hai chi zhanav savo te lav. Before me are two roads, and I don't know which one to take. (song)

ángla- prod/prefix pre-, used with adjs; ángla-komunísto Ivrópa pre-communist Europe

anglal 1) adv/prep forward, forwards, in the front/forefront, in front of; Arakhlem les anglál o kher. I found it in front of the house. Dikhlan múrro névo mobíli avri anglal o kher? Did you see my new car outside in front of the house? Beshlem anglal. I sat in the front. 2) up front; Mangel shel tiléri anglal. He wants a $100 up front. 3) conj before with mai; Mangav te xav mai anglal katar te zhávtar. I want to eat before I leave. 3) comp/vi del ~ get ahead, move ahead/forward(s) 4) zhal ~ advance, go ahead, more forward; Músai te zhas mai anglal ánde amári bukí. We need to move ahead in out work.

anglal adv from the future; Drabarel anglal. She predicts from the future.

anglal kai palal adv front to back/back to front, backwards, the wrong way round

ángla-marimásko gen/adj pre-war (pre-Second World War)

ángla-milai comp/nm spring, time after winter before the hot summer, spring planting season

ángla-mizméri nm/adv before noon, forenoon

angle adv/prep 1) forward, ahead of, often with mai; Zha mai angle mándar! Go/move more ahead/ahead of me! Zha angle! Move ahead!/Advance! 2) nf future, time ahead; dur ánde angle far into the future 3) adv angle ahead, into the future 4) adv ánde angle in the future

Anglézo nm Englishman: nf Anglezáika

Ángliya/Anglíya nf England

Angliyáko gen/adj of England; E Emperatyása la Anglyáko. The Queen of England. Rrom-Angliyáko English Rom, a member of the British Kalderash population: pl Rrom-Angliyácha

anglunes adv early, firstly, first and foremost, initially, primarily often with mai

anglunimos nm priority

angluno adj 1) first, foremost, front, leading often with mai; Mai mishto si t' aves o mai angluno mashkar le Rromênde neg o mai paluno mashkar le Gazhênde. It is better to be first among the Roma instead of the last among the non-Roma. (proverb) 2) foremost, important, o mai angluno the most important 2) former; lêski angluni Rromni his former wife 3) nm front man. first man, leading man, most important man: nf angluni front woman, first woman, leading woman

angropash nm 1) gravedigger 2) funeral director 3) mortician 4) sl psn who will be the death of smbdy; Kodo Rrom kam-avel múrro angropash. That man will be the death of me yet.

angropol vt 1) inter, bury 2) bury/smother engulf (snowdrift/avalanche) 3) v/refl bury oneself (in); Angroposailem ánde buki. I buried myself in work.

angropome pp/adj buried, interred, laid to rest

angropome zhívindo comp/adj buried alive

angropomos nm 1) burial, interment 2) funeral

angrushti/angushtri nf ring; angrushtí-sumnakuni gold ring

angyêliko adj angelic

ángyêlo nm angel: pl ánzhêlya: nf angyeláika: pl anzheláiki

animos nm delivery

anitóri nm bearer, bringer

ankaládyol vi 1) be delivered (baby), come out, emerge: pp/adj ankaladilo 2) be extracted, removed, rescued, withdrawn 3) be published 4) be exhumed 5) be pulled apart/separated

ankalavel vt 1) deliver (baby), extract, get out, pull apart/out, remove, separate, take out, draw out (gun), withdraw: pp/adj ankalado; Ankaladyas pêski púshka hai dyas yag ánde balwal. He drew his gun and shot into the air. 2) get smbdy out of (trouble), preserve, remove, rescue, save, save from destruction; Ankalavas o mobíli katar o iv. We'll get the car out of the snow. Ankaladyas múrro tráyo. He saved my life. 3) bring out, publish 5) exhume 6) earn (money) 7) v/refl ankalavél-pe get oneself out of, remove oneself, withdraw oneself, rescue/save oneself; Ankaladém man katar o xamos. I withdrew myself from the argument. Nashlémtar te ankalaváv-man. I fled to save myself.

ankalayimos nm 1) delivery (of a baby), liberation, rescue, redemption, salvation 2) extraction, removal, withdrawal 3) exhumation 4) publication 5) revelation

ankalayitóri nm 1) liberator, redeemer, rescuer, saviour: nf ankalayitórka 2) publisher

ankerel vt var of ingarel qv

anklel vt/i 1) circulate, get around, get out, get up (after falling): pp/adj anklisto 2) emerge, go out, leave; Ankle avri! Get out! Na anklen avri shavorrále! Don't go outside children! Anklisto ánda o vôrdòn. He came out of the wagon. 3) clamber/climb/climb up on, get on/up on, rise up, mount (horse); Anklistem e playing. I climbed up the mountain. Anklisto pe sténa. He got up on the stage. 4) come up, rise up from, emerge; Ándo milai le tsímburya anklen katar e phuv. In the spring, the seeds emerge from the earth. 5) ascend, rise, rise up; O kham anklel. The sun is rising. 6) turn out, come out; Anklisto mishto amênge. It turned out well for us. 7) appear, come out, be published; Kána anklel godo stóriyo ánde gazéta? When will that story appear in the magazine?

anklimásko-kher comp/nm publishing house

anklimos nm 1) ascendance, ascent, climb, departure, rising; o anklimos le khamêsko dawn, the sunrise/rising of the sun 2) debut, emergence 3) outcome 4) resurrection 5) ascendency, triumph 5) upward mobility 6) edition, printing, publication; Múrri búkfa anklisti ándo pêsko dúito anklimos. My book has been published in its second printing.

anklisto pp/adj 1) mounted, on horseback 2) arisen/risen, raised, resurrected 3) nm mounted man/policeman/soldier, cavalryman; Avile le rai, le ankliste. The police came, the mounted ones.

anklitóri nm climber, mountaineer: nf anklitórka

ankolil vt 1) corral; Ankolisardyam le grasten. We corralled the horses. 2) surround, encircle, orbit 3) detour, deviate, detour, get/go around 4) hedge (around an issue) v/ref 5) ankolíl-pe a) surround oneself (with); Sáyek ankolíl-pe dilênsa. He always surrounds himself with fools. b) avoid, circle around, deviate c) hedge around; Ankolin-pe. They're hedging.

ankolime pp/adj 1) corralled 2) encircled, surrounded; Ankolime símas dushmanênsa. I was surrounded by enemies.

ankolimos nm 1) corralling 2) encirclement. orbit 3) surroundings 4) detour, deviation

ankólo nm circle

anrralo adj egg-shaped, oval

anrro nm 1) egg 2) eyeball 3) ovary 4) vlg/sl testicle see pelo nm

ânspektóri nm inspector: nf ânspektórka

ansuchil vt 1) create chaos, complicate, confuse, foul up, mix up: pp/adj ansuchime 2) entwine, tangle, twirl, twist, wring; Ansuchisardyas lêski korr. She wrung its neck. 2) v/refl ansuchíl-pe become confused/mixed up, become entangled/tangled/entwined/snarled up/fouled; Ansuchil-pe o shavorro pe l' phaleya. The little boy is rolling around on the floor.

ansuchimásko gen/adj chaotic, confusing, entangling

ansuchime pp/adj 1) confused, mixed up 2) entangled, entwined, twisted, tangled; ansuchimé-lo o shelo. The rope is tangled.

ansuchimos nm 1) chaos, confustion, foul up, mix-up 2) entanglement

ansuril vt 1) marry, marry off; Ansurisadyas pêske shaves ánde lêngi familíya. He married his son into their family. 2) v/refl ansuríl-pe get married, marry; Ansurisáilo. He got married. Wo mangel te ansuríl-pe. He wants to get married. Pushlas la te ansuril-pe lása. He asked her if he could marry her. Note: This verb is used ony for men. For women see môritíl vt

ansurimásko gen/adj marital, marriage (of a man); Si tu gûndo ansurimásko? Do you have a marriage thoughts/Are you thinking about marriage?

ansurime pp/adj married (man)

ansurimos nm marriage (of a man)

anti-Rromanísmo nm/neolog discrimination/persecution of Roma, Romaphobia

anti-Tsiganísmo nm/neolog Anti-Gypsyism

ântrégo/întrégo adj/adv 1) complete, entire, entirely, whole; Phiradyas e lúmya ântrégo. He traveled the whole world. Xalyam o shônko, ântrégo. We ate the ham, all of it. Bikindyas le grast, ântrézhi. He sold the horses, all of them. 2) nm all of it, the entire matter/thing

antúnchi adv then; Antúnchi te avel kerdo! Then let it be so done!

anúmi/anúme adv deliberately, on purpose, purposely; Kerdyas anúmi. He did (it) on purpose.

anzárdyol vi 1) become erected, raised, constructed: pp/adj anzardilo 2) be reached

anzarel vt 1) extend, reach, span, stretch: pp/adj anzardo 2) erect, construct, set up; Anzardyam le tséri, We erected the tents 3) lift, hoist, raise (flag)

anzarimos nm building, construction, hoisting, erection, raising

anzol vi extend (to), reach, span: pp/adj anzulo

anzomos nm extension, reach, span

ap/apo conj/prep/imp after all, anyhow, now, then, so, on, well; Te trobul te kerel, ap, mek te kérdyol If it needs to be done, then let it be done. Ashundem so phendyas ap phendem lêske múrro gûndo. I heard what he said, then I told/gave him my opinion. Akushla ma, ap me gêlémtar. He insulte me, upon that/so, I departed. Ápo ashun! Now listen!

aparáta nf 1) apparatus, device 2) tool

aparáti nf/pl equipment, devices, paraphernalia, tools

apendíchi nf/pl 1) appendicitis 2) appendix; Pelo naswalo, lêske apendíchi, zhanes. He fell sick, his appendix, you know.

aplikátsiya nf application

apostólo nm apostle

aprikáta nf apricot

aptéka nf apothecary, drug store

aptekári apothecary, druggist: nf aptekárka

apuntaménto nm appointment

Arabítska nf Arabic (Lang)

Arabítsko adj Arab; Arababítsko ponyáva Arabian carpet

Arábiya nf Arabia

Arábo nm Arab: nf Arabáika

arakhadimos nm birth, delivery (of a baby)

arakhadino nm foundling: nf arakhadini

arakhádyol vi 1) become found, find oneself, turn up (after being lost): pp/adj arakhadilo 2) feel; Sar arakhádyos? How do you feel? 3) be born; Arakhádilem ánde Kanáda. I was born/found in Canada. This is the polite way to say I was born instead of biyándilem, I was born, which implies all the pollution of birth, and is thus a taboo topic in mixed conversation. See byándyol vi 4) come together, meet 5) fit (clothing) 6) be found/located/situated

arakhári nm defender, guardian, protector

arakhel vt 1) find, discover: pp/adj arakhlo/arakhlino 2) come across 3) defend, protect, shelter 4) be wary, guard, watch over, watch out; T'arakhes kyo drom! May you travel safely! Trobul ame Rrom te arakhel o wudar. We need a Rom to guard the door. 5) keep under surveillance, watch; Le rai sáyek arakhen e ófisa. The police are always watching the parlour. 6) v/refl arakhél-pe a) abstain from, avoid, be careful, be on one's guard, defend oneself, guard oneself, take care, watch over oneself b) meet up with, run into; Arakhlé-ma lêsa ándo Târáno. I ran into him in Toronto. c) behave oneself, comport oneself; Arakhél-pe pe mishtimáste. He behaves himself well/He is well behaved d) find oneself; Kána ratilo, arakhlyám-ame xasarde ándo wêrsh. When night fell, we found ourself lost in the forest.

arakhimáta nm/pl evidence, findings

arakhimos 1) nm defense, protection, sanctuary 2) discovery, finding 3) surveillance 4) comp/vt del ~ give/provide protection; Dem lêske arakhimos. I gave him protection.

araki nf 1) yesterday, last night; Araki nas baxtali mánge. Yesterday was not lucky for me. 2) past (fig); Le Rromêngi araki, The Romani past (yesterday); Sáyêk del-dúma ánda pêske arakya. He's always talking about his past (his yesterdays). 3) adv last night, yesterday; Gêlítar araki. She left yesterday.

arakya nf/pl past, yesterdays; Serel pêske arakya. He's remembering his yesterdays/past.

arakyára adv usually with de as in de arakyára since last night/yesterday; Símas kathe de arakyára. I have been here since last night/yesterday.

arakyarel vt 1) store overnight, house/put up overnight, park overnight: pp/adj arakyardo 2) v/refl arakyarél-pe stay overnight, pass the night; Arakhyardyám-ame ándo motéli. We stayed overnight in a motel.

arakyuno adj 1) from/of yesterday, yesterday's; Naswalo sas desar e sláva e arakyuni. He has been sick since yesterday's feast. 2) last night's

araskápo nf horoscope

arasláno nm lion, man-eating lion: nf araslánka

archichéski-shib comp/nf tongue of tin, tin icicle (used in plating copper mixing bowls); Bilavas o archíchi hai shorras ánde l' shantsútsurya pe phuv te keras archichêske shiba te hanos le basûni. We melt the tin and pour it into little trenches on the ground to make strips of tin to plate the basins.

archichêsko gen/adj made of tin

archíchi nm 1) tin 2) solder

ardei nm 1) paprika, pepper 2) capsicum

ardjentári nm silversmith: nf ardjentárka silversmith's wife

aremil vt plate (with copper): pp/adj aremime (Eur) see hanol vt

aresel vi 1) arrive at, get, get to, make it to, reach: pp/adj areslino; Sóma areslo ándo gav kána peli e ryat. He just made it into town when night fell. Chi aresas khatênde. We are not getting anywhere/not going anywhere. 2) last (until), suffice, 3) achieve, attain, manage to do

aresimos nm 1) arrival, termination of a trip 2) remainder 3) attainment

aríchi nm 1) porcupine 2) hedgehog: pl aricheyi

árka nf ark; Árka-Nowêski, Ark of Noah

Arlítska nf Any one of a group of closely-related Non-Vlax Romani dialects spoken in the South Balkans and now in western Europe and the Americas by refugees and immigrants from this region.

Arlítsko gen/adj of the Arli Romani group; Arlítsko Rrom, a Rom of the Arli group: nf Arlítsko Rromni

árma nf 1) army (Mil) 2) weapon 3) lel-pe ármi vi take up arms, arm oneself

armaiya nm/pl damnation

arman/amran nm 1) curse, malediction; Perel arman pe túte te na mothos o chachimos ánde gadya buki.You'll bring down a curse on yourself if you don't tell the truth in this matter. 2) oath, vow 3) comp/vt del ~ curse, damn, lay a curse; Motho o chachimos, wórka níchi, dav tu arman! Tell the truth, or if you don't, I'll lay a curse on you!

armandino/amrandino comp/pp/adj cursed, damned, doomed; Amrandino sas katar e materítsa. He was cursed/damned from the womb/from birth.

armil vt 1) arm (with weapons): pp/adj armime 2) v/refl armíl-pe arm oneself

armoníya nf harmony

aropláno nm aeroplane, aircraft

árpa nf harp (Mus)

arpári nm harpist: nf arpáika

árro nm flour, grain var in várro/wárro qv

árro-zhováko comp/nm oatmeal

arséniko nm arsenic

árta nf art

artichóka nf artichoke (Am)

artísta nm/nf artist, artistic/creative person, person who takes pride in his/her work; Me sim artísta. Chi kerav buki djungali. I am an artist. I don't do ugly work. (meaning working as a coppersmith in this sentence). Note: In Kalderash, artist has more of the French meaning of a person with creative ability and temperament.

artístiko adj artistic, creative

artísto nm var of artísta nm/nf

artizána nf art, craft, handicraft

artizanáti nf/pl handicrafts, hand-crafted items

artrítiko nm arthritis, bursitis (Am) gen/adj artritikósko arthritic

Arxentína nf Argentina

Arxentíno nm Argentinean man: nf Arxentútsa

Arxentítsko adj from Argentina, Argentinean

arxivil vt archive, store in an archive: pp/adj arxivime

arxivísto n archivist: nf arxevísta

arxívurya nm/pl archives

aryat nf 1) tonight 2) adv tonight, this evening

arzhintári nm silversmith

asal vi 1) laugh: pp/adj asailo/asanilo; Asávas lêstar. I was laughing at him. 2) smile; Asal pe mánde, She is smiling at me. Asayas kána ashundyas. He smiled when he heard (that). Note: 1) takes an abl/n/acc in the acc when the acc is animate while 2) is used with pe as shown in the examples given 3) ~ dilivanes, giggle, smile asininely

asamásko gen/adj 1) amusing, comical, funny, laughable 2) ridiculous; Asamáski logódba si kai phendyan. That's a ridiculous proposal that you made.

asaltil vt assault, attack

asaltime pp/adj 1) assaulted, attacked 2) be ~, asaltíl-pe v/refl

asálto nm assault (Mil), attack

asamos nm 1) laugh, laughter, mirth 2) smile 3) comp/vi perel ándo ~ break into laughter, start laughing

asav nm 1) mill, windmill 2) grinder; kafáko ~ coffee grinder

asavári nm miller: nf asavárka miller's wife

asavel vt cause to laugh, deride, laugh at, make fun of, mock: pp/adj asado; Asavel ma. He is mocking me/causing people to laugh at me.

asavêsko-barr nm millstone

asayimos nm ouburst of laughter

ashado pp/adj 1) detained, held up, stopped, stalled 2) nm detainee: nf ashadi 3) stranded psn

áshado pai comp/nm stagnant water

ashádyol vi 1) be silent, cease, remain, stay: pp/adj ashadilo 2) be detained/dammed/held up/impeded/stopped/stranded; Ashádilem ándo tráfiko. I got stuck in the traffic. Ashádilo ánde imigrátsiya. He was detained in immigration. 3) to be ceased/ended; Ashádile pêske gesa. His days are ended/over. 4) catch one's breath, stop to rest, take a break

ashárdyol vi 1) be complimented/lauded/praised: pp/adj ashardilo (Eur) 2) be flattered

asharel vt 1) compliment, laud, praise: pp/adj ashardo (Eur) 2) flatter, snow job, suck up to

asharimos nm 1) praise (Eur) 2) flattery, snow job

ashavel vt 1) bring to a stop, detain, halt, make to desist/stop, prevent, put an end to, stop: pp/adj ashado 2) block up, impede, dam (river) 3) interrupt; Ashadyas múrre vórbi. He interrupted my conversation. 4) avert, prevent 5) allow/make to remain

ashayimos nm 1) stoppage, blockage, deadlock, gridlock, obstacle 2) delay, detention

ashel vt/i 1) stand, stay, remain: pp/adj ashilo; Kon ashel avri? Who is standing outside? 2) cease/stop doing, desist, end, stop; Ash kyo mui! Stop your mouth/shut up! Ashilo lêsko yilo. His heart stopped/He died of heart failure. Ashilo te piyel doháno. He stopped smoking. 3) be available, be left, remain, be outstanding/remaining; Ashilem xolyáriko. I remained angry. Chi ashel khánchi. There's nothing left (remaining). Chi ashel thud ándo frígo. There's no milk left in the fridge. Ashel férdi trin ges te das-gáta e buki. There are only three days remaining/left to complete the work. Sóde love ashen ándo bánko? How much money is left in the bank? 4) stand (with), agree (with); Ashav tumênsa pe gadya treyába. I remain with you/agree with you, on this issue. 5) stand (as security for smbdy); Ashel mánge ánde kumpaníya. He will stand for me in the (local) community. 6) endure, last, remain; stand; Te ashel mil bersh! May it (the house) stand for a thousand years! 7) comp/vi ~ nango get cleaned out (in bankruptcy or gambling) 8) comp/vi ~ phari become pregnant, be impregnated

ashimos nm break, halt, lull, recess, respite, stop

Áshta! v/imp 1) Hand it over! Show it! Let's see it! Áshta ke dikhav lês! Hand it here so I can see it! 2) Wait! Hang on! Áshta te arakhav múrre shtákli! Hang on till I find my glasses!

ashundimos nm fame, glory, renown

ashundo pp/adj famous, renowned, well-known

ashúndyol vi 1) be heard, be heard about: pp/adj ashundilo; Chi mái ashúndyol kodo swáto. That word isn't heard/used any more. 2) be famous/renowned/well known

ashunel vt/i 1) hear: pp/adj ashundo 2) heed, listen, obey, pay attention (to); Chi mai ashunel ma. He/she never pays attention to me. Ashún-ta mánde! Listen to me! 3) overhear 4) v/refl ashunél-pe be heard, hear oneself. Musái te shunél-pe amáro gláso. Our voice must be heard.

ashunimos nm 1) audience, hearing; Mangel ashunimos ánde kris. He wants a hearing in court. 2) eavesdropping 3) acoustics

ashunitóri nm 1) eavesdropper, listener: nf ashunitórka 2) hearing aid

ashunitórya nm/pl audience, listeners

ashwar nf halter (for a horse)

asimilátsiya nf assimilation (Eur) see also Gazhikanimos nm

asosiyátsa nf association

asparíga nf single asparagus stalk: pl aspirídji

aspiratóri nm vacuum cleaner (Eur)

aspirína nf aspirin

áspro adj coarse, hard, rough

astáchi nm 1) cast-iron cooking pot, often on three legs 2) cast iron, pig iron

astachiyêsko gen/adj cast iron, made of cast iron

astachuno adj 1) resembling cast iron, having the quality of cast iron; Si lês astachuno yilo. He has a heart of cast iron.

astardi nf rowel of a spur

astardo pp/adj 1) arrested, captured, detained, seized, trapped 2) begun/commenced/started 3) addicted, trapped 4) nm addict, captive, captive wild male animal, prisoner: nf astardi

astárdyol vi 1) be/become addicted, captured, caught, seized, trapped: pp/adj astardilo; Astárdilem ándo tráfiko. I got caught up in the traffic. 2) be conceived, begin, commence, get started, originate, start; Astárdili e sláva? Has the feast started? Astarárdilem rano ánde diminyátsa. I got started early in the morning. 3) becom addicted to smthg; Piyélas parno hai astárdilo. He was using cocaine and he became addicted. 4) become attached, stick to 5) become connected/related to by marriage

astarel vt 1) arrest, catch, capture, entrap, get (understand smthg), grab, grasp, impound, seize, snatch, trap: pp/adj astardo 2) attach, fasten, harness/hitch (horse), hook up; Astardyas o grast ka o vôrdòn. He hitched the horse up to the caravan. 3) join, put together; Astardem le dui kotora kasht ánd-êkh-than. I joined the two pieces of wood together. 4) catch up to, overtake 5) begin, commence, start; Dem-man te astaráv o djuléshi. I decided to begin the meeting. 6) engage (gears) 7) make smbdy addicted; Na pi o parno, astarel tu. Don't take cocaine, it will make you addicted. 8) v/refl astarél-pe attach oneself to, cling to, stick to; Astarél-pe mánsa sar o kléyo. He sticks to me to me like glue/I can't get rid of him. 9) palm off, stick smbdy with smth; Astardem lês lása. I palmed it off on him. (Am)

astarimos nm 1) capture, entrapment, seizure, trap 2) attachment, fastening, hitching device 3) beginning, commencement, start 4) addiction

astarimós-mashêngo comp/nm catching fish, fishing

astarni nf catch, trap

astrécha nf ostrich: gen/adj astrecháko belonging to an ostrich; astrechánge pora ostrich feathers

aswin/asvin nf tear, teardrop: pl aswa/aswaiya

atarde adv hither, here; Atarde, Rromále! Here, over here, Roma! Háiden atarde, shavorrále! Come over here, children!

ateléri nm studio, workshop (Eur)

aténtsiya nf attention

athavel see hathavel vt

atwéto nm 1) answer, conclusion, decision, reply 2) resolution, solution 3) comp/vt/i del ~ answer, give reply, reach a decision 3) comp/vt/i arakhel ~ find an answer/solution, resolve, solve

áva adv yes see also va

avel vi 1) attend, be coming, come: pp/adj avilo; Kon avel? Who is coming? Avilem po báso. I came by bus. Avilyam ánde kontáina ándo fúndo le vaporiyêsko. We came in a shipping container in the hold of the ship. 2) achieve orgasm 3) ~ with pe come down on, descend upon; Avile le rai pe mánde. The police came down on me/started to investigate me. 4) appear, approach 5) ~ pála follow 6) ~ pálpale come back again, be reincarnated 7) arrive, get here/there; Avilyam anglál e ryat. We got there before nightfall. 8) v/refl avél-pe a) come due, appear materialize b) happen, take place 9) avéltar vi come out from, emerge from, exit; Avilótar katar o wêrsh. He emerged from the forest. Katar avilántar? From where did you exit? 10) be, become; Woi avel múrri Rromni. She will be/become my wife. Chi zhanav so avéla lênsa kána merávtar. I don't know what will become of them when I pass on/die. Note: all tenses of the verb to be/to become, except the present indicative and the past tense, are formed from avel; pres/ind Sim baxtalo. I am lucky. pst ; Símas baxtalo. I was lucky. fut Kam-avav baxtalo. I will be lucky. pst/cont Avávas-baxtalo. I used to be lucky. pluperfect Avilémas baxtalo. I had been lucky. cond Kámas-avav baxtalo. I would be lucky. imp/s Av! imp/pl Aven!

aver 1) pron/adj 1) other, another; Zhas aver ges. We'll go another day. 2 another male person, somebody else; Avilo aver. Another man came. Volil avres. She loves another man. Volil avrya. He loves another woman. Mothodyas avrêske. He told another (man). see also var in khaver pron/adj

avér-fyal adv/phr 1) different, differently 2) opposite; Nai so phenel wo, avér-fyal si. It's not as he says, it's the opposite. Chi zhanel aver-fyal. He doesn't know the difference. 3) nm alternative, opposite, something else; Nai tut avér-fyal. You have no alternative. Wo phenel avér-fyál. He says the opposite. 4) adj another kind of/brand of/ make of; Mangav te kinav avér-fyal mobíli. I want to buy another make of car.

avér-fyálo comp/adj 1) alternative, different, opposite: pl avér-fyálurya; Godo si avér-fyálo gitára. That's a different guitar 2) nm difference

avér-kurko/yavér-kurko comp/adj; Avav pe yaver-kurko. I'll come next week.

avér-nav comp[/nm alias

avér-tehára 1) comp/nf the day after tomorrow 2) adv day after tomorrow

avér-than adv elsewhere, somewhere else; Sáyek si po aver than, o Rrom godo. That man is always somewhere else. He died somewhere else. Mulo avré-thanêste.

averutno adj another, other

aver-zhênó n another person, somebody else: nf aver-zhêni

Áve-uf! exclam Alas! Goodness me! God! Oh God! (arch) appears in folktales and recorded from elderly speakers; ``Áve-Uf!'' Phênga-woi. ``Xoxádilem!'' ``Alas!'' said she. ``I have been deceived!'' From Can Kald folk Mûndro Salamon thai e Mártya Wonderful Solomon and the Angel of Death.

avgin/ovgin nm honey

avginalo/ovginalo adj honey, sweet like honey

Avgósto nm August

Avgóstone adv in August

avimos nm 1) arrival, attendance, (the) coming; O dúito avimos le Kristósko The second coming of Christ 2) appearance (at an event)

ávindoi v/part coming, approaching (Can) Note: -doi/-índoi This present-participle suffix construction is no longer productive in North-American Kalderash but some fossilized examples are retained and can be heard occasionally from some, usually elderly, speakers or immigrants; Wo xálas zhándoi. He was eating while walking away. Others recorded in Canada are sóvindoi `sleeping' and gílabandoi `singing.' It can also be heard in some Kalderash and related dialects in Europe where it is more common, especially in some Romanian Vlax-Romani dialects.

aviyáko gen/adj having to do with aviation,flying

aviyátsiya nf 1) airforce(Mil) 2) aviation, flying

aviyóno nm aircraft (Eur)

avlin nf 1) mansion, manor 2) castle, château, palace; Lêsko kher si chachi avlin. His house is a real palace. 3) courtyard, patio

avlinash nm owner of a large, imposing house/mansion: nf avlináshka

avokáto nm advocate, attorney, lawyer: nf avokatáika

avrêngo gen/adj belonging to others if nm/pl or mixed nm/nf/pl nf/pl

avrêsko gen/adj belonging to another if nm; Nai murro, avrêsko si. It's not mine, it belongs to somebody else.

avrêste prep/pron/adv 1) to another man 2) elsewhere

avré-themêsko gen/adj alien, of another/foreign country; avré-themêsko Rrom Romani man from another country, foreign Rom: nf avré-themêski Rromni

avri nf 1) outdoors, outside 2) adv outdoors, outside; Zha avri! Go outside! Meklem o radyútso avri o kher. I left the portable radio outside the house.

avruno 1) adj external, exterior, outside, outer 2) nm outsider, one not of the in-group, loner: nf avruwi; Woi si avruwi mashkar le avre Rromnyánde. She is an outsider/loner among the other women. 3) nm another 5) exterior; o avruno le kherêsko the exterior of the house

avrya pron another (if nf) 2) nf another, another woman; Yekh Rromni si la trin shave, avrya si la pansh, but shave si amare Rromnyánde. One woman has three children, another has five, our women have many children. Volil avrya. He loves another woman. Mothodyas le avryánge. She informed the other women.

avryáko gen/adj belonging to another if nf; Si pêsko shav avryáko. He's his son by another woman/wife

avryal adv/prep from outside, outside, on the outside; Ashundem o bashimos avryal o kher. I heard the noise from outside the house. Avilo andre avryal. He came in from outside. Si lên but lulugya pe swáko rêgá avryal o kher. They have a lot of flowers all around the outside of the house. Rrêspisáilo but gunoi pe phuv avryal lêngo kher. A lot of garbage has been scattered on the ground outside their house. Wo si Rrom streyíno, avryal amári kumpaníya. He is a a stranger Rom from outside our community.

avryángo gen/adj belonging to others, if nf/pl

avtobáso nm autobus, bus (Eur)

avtsîn/avtsûn nm steel; avtsîn kai chi mai ruzheníl-pe stainless steel/steel that never rusts

avtsînaló adj having the quality of or resembling steel

avtsînèsko gen/adj made of steel

âwérish adv see owérish

awordal adv/prep from over here; Shai ashunav la awordal. I can hear her from over here. Háide awordal! Come over here!

aworde adv over here, this way; Háiden aworde Shavále! Come over here, Boys! Rromále, aworde! Roma, over here! Shéyo! Aworde túsa! Girl! Over here with you/come over here!

awtóri/ãtóri nm author: nf awtórka

azbádyol vi 1) be fondled, touched, caressed: pp/adj azbadilo 2) be felt up, groped, sexually molested (Am)

azbal vt/i 1) caress, feel, fondle, stroke, touch: pp/adj azbado; N'azba o bov te na phabarés-tut! Don't touch the stove, lest you get burned! 2) affect (emotionally), impress 3) touch upon, have relevance to smth; Chi azbal amári buki. That has no relevance to our task. 4) contact (eletrical/sound system)

azbayimos 1) nm contact, feeling, fondling, impression, touching 2) groping, sexual molestation see also pipiyimós vt

azbésto nm asbestos (Am): gen/adj azbestósko made of asbestos

azbimos nm feel, touch

azhukérdyol vi be waiting, be kept waiting: pp/adj azhukerdilo; Azhukérdilem trin chásurya. I have been waiting thee hours.

azhukerel vt/i 1) wait, wait for: pp/adj azhukerdo; Azhúker! Wait! Azhukerav o Stévo. I am waiting for Steve. Azhukerásas le gósturya. We were waiting for the guests. Azhukerélas trin ges te avel pêsko phral. He has been waiting three days for his brother to arrive. Azhukerav avri. I'll wait outside. 2) anticipate, expect; Azhukerav chêko, I'm waiting for a cheque. 3) have patience, be patient

azhukerimos nm anticipation, expectation, wait, waiting period

azhutil vt 1) aid, assist, help: pp/adj azhutime 2) v/refl azhutíl-pe help oneself

azhutimásko gen/adj helpful, useful

azhutimos nm aid, advice, assistance, help, service, support: gen/adj azhutimásko helping, supporting; azhutimásko wast helping hand

azhutóri nm lawyer see also zhutóri nm

azilantíya nf political asylum, Convention-refugee status

azilánto nm refugee: nf azilantáika female refugee

azilantomos nm refugee status/asylum

azílo nm asylum, refugee status; Mangel azílo. He wants refugee status/asylum.

azílo-polítiko comp/nm political asylum (Eur)

Azíya nf Asia

Aziyáko gen/ádj Asia; Gazhó-Aziyáko Asian man: nf Gazhí-Aziyáki Asian woman.

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