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Romani Dictionary and Language Centre

Romani Dictionary: English - Kalderash” by Ronald Lee

Title: Romani Dictionary: English - Kalderash
Author: Ronald Lee
Publisher: Magoria Books
ISBN: 0981162673
ISBN-13: 9780981162676
Format: paperback
Pages: 476
Size: 6.69" × 9.61"
Price: $39.95
Excerpts: See below.
Buy now: $39.95 USD · £29.95 GBP

See also: Romani Dictionary: Kalderash - English

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Description

“... a comprehensive modern dictionary of the internationalised dialect, which will serve the emerging literary and administrative language needs of the growing Romani intelligentsia...”

— Professor Thomas A. Acton, M.A., D.Phil. (Oxon.), F.R.S.A., O.B.E
Professor of Romani Studies, University of Greenwich

*          *          *

As Ian Hancock notes in the introduction, this dictionary has been years in the making, and its early drafts have been in circulation among a select few for at least three decades.

It should come as no surprise then that this Kalderash dictionary, by Learn Romani author Ronald Lee, is fundamentally different from many previously published Romani dictionaries:

Firstly, it is compiled by a native Romani speaker; secondly, it covers and, where appropriate, differentiates European and North-American Kalderash terms; and thirdly, it is a decidedly academic quality work that does not shy away from Romani grammar.

Prefaced by a grammatical primer, containing over 20,000 lexical items, and filled with countless real world examples of idiomatic usage, this book is an indispensable resource for anyone looking to learn or work with Kalderash Romani.

Excerpt

(Please note that the below excerpted portions of the book may not be copied, reproduced, or otherwise used except as permitted by Fair Use or other relevant legislation.)

Table of Contents

Introduction

1. How to use this dictionary
1.1 Choice of entries
1.2 Caveat
1.3 Pronunciation
1.4 Thematic and athematic items
1.5 Explanation of the entries

2. Understanding the Translation of the English Entries
2.1 Nouns
2.2 Adjectives
2.3 Adverbs
2.4 Verbs
2.5 Narrative

3. Romani grammar
3.1 Nominative and oblique
3.2 Noun case forms
3.3 The adjective and stress
3.4 Numerals
3.5 Conjunctions and prepositions
3.6 Verbs
3.7 Verbals

3. Recommended books and other learning tools

English – Kalderash dictionary
A, B, Ch, D, Dj, E, F, G, H, I, K, Kh, L, M, N, O, P, Ph, R, Rr, S, Sh, T, Th, Ts, U, V, W, X, Y, Z, Zh

Introduction

This dictionary has been years in the making. For at least thirty it has existed in typewritten form, circulated unbound and in very few copies. Now, as the logical follow-up to his Learn Romani, Ronald Lee's dictionary has become accessible to everybody.

Some may question its thus becoming readily available. Romanies themselves are reluctant to share their language with others, for understandable reasons; especially in the past, those in the non-Romani world who have wanted to learn it have almost always had an ulterior motive for doing so, and almost always for their own ends rather than for the benefit of those who own the language. Grammars of Romani on library shelves in Germany are quietly and permanently removed by Sinti there, who have not forgotten what use knowledge of their language was put to during the Nazi period, the Porrajmos. One early draft of this dictionary was kept and destroyed by an American Romani woman who feared that it would fall into the wrong hands. Her concern was not unfounded; from her own city a small book entitled Gypsy Talk: Law Enforcement's Guide to the Secret Language of the American Gypsy appeared in 1993, written by Detective Dennis Marlock and privately circulated for use by the police. Its intent was “to help police officers interrogate Gypsy suspects.” The mistakes in it are legion.

Is the appearance of this dictionary therefore breaking a trust? Not at all. Rather than doing so, it is providing a means of making the extensive lexicon of Romani available to Romani speakers themselves, since it contains words that only the older generations now know. Besides, there are scores of Romani dictionaries available already (the Romani Archives in Texas has over a hundred different ones), though very few of them have been written for English speakers. I am sometimes asked by Romani acquaintances why I teach a course on our history and culture. I tell them that there are scores of books about “Gypsies” available in libraries and from the Internet, and ninety-nine percent of them are written by non-Roma, and almost all of them are unreliable. Some are misleading at best and downright racist at worst, and they are readily accessible by the general public. Ronald Lee, like myself, besides being a Romani man is an academic, and therefore can present information from the inside and challenge existing misinformation.

Like Gjerdman and Ljungberg's masterpiece written nearly half a century ago, this dictionary also presents the Vlax dialect of the Kalderash Roma, that spoken by Ronald Lee's principal informant the late Russell Demitro. But unlike either Gjerdman or Ljungberg, or more recently Boretzky or Igla, Ronald is himself a Romani man and worked for many years alongside Kalderash speakers in the Romani world. Some of his life during that period of his life is documented in his book Goddam Gypsy. His knowledge of their dialect is immense.

The dictionary records the variety of Kalderash Romani that is spoken in North America. It differs surprisingly little from European Kalderash, and is easily intelligible with other Vlax dialects such as those spoken by the Lovara and Machvaya. Together, Vlax constitutes the largest single dialect cluster of all Romani dialect groups, in terms not only of numbers (having perhaps five or six million speakers worldwide) but also geographically, having speakers found on all continents. It is therefore a logical variety of Romani for learners to begin with. Romanies who have lost the language, even native speakers of other dialects, are learning this kind of Romani. It does not purport to be any sort of “international standard,” but work elsewhere is in progress on the creation of such a dialect, and Kalderash Vlax is providing its basis.

The day is past when grammars and dictionaries were written by, and for, non-Romani scholars. Since the advent of the Internet, e-mailing and texting have provided the perfect means of communication for a Diaspora people, and has led to an increase in literacy not only in the national language—English in the United States and Canada—but in Romani as well. The orthography employed here is especially suited to English speakers, making use of digraphs such as /ch/, /sh/ and /zh/ rather than /c/, /š/ and /ž/, an orthography now being used in Romani language publications in Hungary and increasingly used in e-mail correspondence, since it requires no suprascript accent marks. This English-to-Romani dictionary, along with its Romani-to-English companion, is a masterpiece.

Ian Hancock
Director
The Romani Archives and Documentation Center
The University of Texas at Austin
www.radoc.net

1. How to use this dictionary

Because Kalderash Romani has noun cases and a complicated inflectional structure for adjectives and other modifiers, subject to gender and number in the nominative and the oblique, the dictionary entries have been organized with this in mind. The following synopsis has been created to give a brief overview of the grammatical structure and how to interpret the entries, many of which are accompanied by examples of word usage and idiomatic expressions.

No attempt has been made to provide an in-depth grammatical survey since this dictionary is designed to be used in conjunction with a textbook giving the grammatical rules and how to form the inflexions. These are all clearly explained in the author's previously-published Learn Romani — Das-Dúma Rromanes (2005, Hatfield, Hertfordshire UP), an 18-lesson home-study course which can be augmented by other learning tools including Ian Hancock's A Handbook of Vlax Romani (1995, Columbus, Slavica Publisher's, Inc.) and the relevant source material listed in Edward Proctor's Gypsy Dialects (2008, Hatfield, of Hertfordshire UP). At the time of writing (2008) these three sources are the most useful learning tools for those wishing to learn basic Kalderash Romani.

The dictionary has been created primarily to assist young Roma and others who wish to either learn Kalderash or to improve their knowledge of it, rather than for academic linguists who wish to study Romani “dialects.” This need has been and continues to be amply and ably catered to by qualified academic linguists. However, there is almost a total lack of learning tools for laypeople, students and young Roma in High School or college, who in most cases will be unaware of the terminology and structure of modern linguistics or of phonetic systems requiring complicated diacritical marks not found on standard computer keyboards. The dictionary is designed as a computer-friendly, useful learning tool and linguistic terminology has been kept to a minimum. When used, it is explained in simple language and with examples of usage.

1.1 Choice of entries

The basic choice of entries come from the author's own vocabulary plus words and examples recorded from native speakers and from music CDs by native North-American speakers. The basic entries are from the North-American Kalderash dialect spoken in Canada and the US augmented by words recorded by the author from speakers of mutually intelligible Latin-American and European dialects. I have avoided listing words taken from other published works except material written by native speakers such as Mateo Maximoff and other Kalderash Roma. Some of the published works consulted contained entries which I have never heard or recorded and none have been included in order to avoid possible errors in recording, transcription or typographical errors in the original sources.

It must also be realized that all speakers of Romani are at least bilingual if not multilingual. Because of this, many technical terms and modernisms from the non-Romani language spoken are intermixed with Romani, for example in North-American Kalderash; Tho kotor manrro ánde tósta! ‘Put a piece of bread in the toaster!’ Since there is no established Romani word for ‘toaster.’ the English word ‘toaster’ is employed but pronounced as if it were a Romani word. Typical could be; Trobul o mobíli neve brake liners, zhanes. ‘The car needs a new brake liners, you know.’

In dialects of Kalderash from Europe, European-language borrowings would be employed in this way which can be confusing to English speakers learning Kalderash. Another pitfall exists in the different terminology used in various countries for items like ‘cake,’ ‘pie,’ ‘cookie,’ etc. Many internationally used terms such as ‘banana’ and ‘pizza’ are commonly used and inflected into oblique stems in Kalderash because their structure resembles Romani, bananáki morki, ‘banana skin,’ for example. But with a great many English words such as ‘microwave’ this is impossible. Many, however, are converted into athematic items such as plondjéri ‘toilet plunger.’ or tróko ‘truck/lorry’ and can then be inflected.

Kalderash like other Romani dialects has been a purely orally-transmitted language until recently and it is thus highly idiomatic. Verbs and expressions often cannot be translated literally and must rely on idiomatic constructions or even proverbs. These have been listed where appropriate. Native speakers communicating in Romani verbally, in writing, over the Internet and in publications, are also developing neologisms that are finding their way into the vocabularies of other speakers and these are listed as such in the dictionary (neolog). When speaking ones own dialect, these neologisms do not have to be used as much but in cross-dialectal email communication, they are used because the equivalents in the two native dialects of those communicating are different. For meeting, one dialect may have diwáno and kidemos for ‘meeting’ but another may not have either or have one of them but with a different meaning. Thus, to be widely understood across inter-dialectal communication, the neologism mítingo might be employed.

Finally, while many of the athematic entries (loan words) might seem to be derived from Spanish, they are, in fact, derived from Romanian, since Kalderash dialects have been heavily influenced by this language. A few words which appear in North-American Kalderash have been borrowed from Spanish but do not appear in central/eastern-European dialects of Kalderash. It goes without saying that Spanish loan words will appear in Kalderash and closely-related dialects in Latin America.

1.2 Caveat

Some compilers of basic children's primers, biblical translations, glossaries and even dictionaries in Vlax-Romani dialects similar to Kalderash have inserted thematic words from other Romani dialects not used in Kalderash such as rukh ‘tree’ and len ‘river.’ Others, in their enthusiasm to create a more Indic Romani have even lifted words from Hindi or calqued on Sanskrit to create terms like bânduk ‘rifle,’ golni ‘ball’ (Hindi goli ‘bullet.’) or wastin ‘elephant’ calqued from Sanskrit via Hindi hathiñ. One zealot even introduced the word almári for ‘cupboard,’ which is in fact, a Hindi word adopted from Portuguese in their Indian colonies at least 500 years after the ancestors of the Roma had left India! A non-literary living language is not something to be toyed with for one's own amusement like Esperanto by linguistic zealots devoted to “cleansing” it of its non-Indic athematic items. These spurious ‘Romani’ entries have been avoided in the dictionary since they are not understood by native speakers of Kalderash. A similar attempt at ‘linguistic cleansing’ was attempted with French in my native province of Quebec in the 1980s by the Provincial Office de la Langue Française to rid French Canadian of its anglicisms and colloquialisms. Predictably, this foundered on the reality of the rocks of the tenacity of the spoken language.

1.3 Pronunciation

There is no standard pronunciation of Kalderash Romani that is common to all native speakers in the many countries and regions of countries where Kalderash speech communities are located, any more than there is a standard pronunciation of colloquial English throughout the English-speaking world. Pronunciation, especially of vowels, differs because of migrations, isolation in specific regions by some groups, influences from the surrounding non-Romani language(s) spoken by the speakers and other factors. The pronunciation given in the following guide is that used by the author. If the subject of the dictionary had been limited a specific dialect spoken in a specific geographical area, say, Bucharest, Romania, or Toronto, Canada, a definite set of rules for pronunciation might apply. However, the purpose of this dictionary, like the author's previous Learn Romani, is to create a tool that will be useful both in Europe, the Americas and anywhere else Kalderash-Romani is spoken.

The phonetic system employed in this dictionary is that used for the author's previously-published Learn Romani course for which this dictionary is compatible and the author has been using it since the 1960s with many other Romani speakers, in personal correspondence, and in published works. The entries in the dictionary come from the following sources; North-American Kalderash, which is spoken in Canada, the US and Latin America, augmented by words from mutually-intelligible European Kalderash dialects which the author assimilated while interacting with European Romani immigrants both socially and officially as a member of the Roma Community Centre in Toronto from 1997 to 2008. It is augmented by words encountered in email correspondence with native speakers in the US, Latin America and Europe. The entries thus represent a wide spectrum of Kalderash which would be understood throughout the Americas and in Europe by native speakers as the author has found it to be.

The phonetic system is based on English and designed for English speakers. This way, it avoids the use of consonants such as < j > for < y > which are confusing to speakers of English, Spanish and French in the Americas and also the use of unfamiliar diacritical marks employed in Romani phonetic systems based on European languages which would require either special fonts or foreign-language keyboards. The author's phonetic system has been successfully used by Romani speakers in Canada and the US who need to write Romani on a standard computer keyboard without the hassle of non-existent symbols. It was also used for the Kalderash Romani which appeared in the Roma Community Centre magazine, Romano Lil. The stress accents and other indicators employed in this phonetic system do not have to be used by native speakers. They have been used to assist the student to pronounce the dictionary entries and Examples of sentences. The phonetics have been designed with usability and practicality in mind. A teenage Romani student in high school in North America needs to be able to write Romani on a computer without needing special fonts or foreign keyboards while publishers producing material in Romani can well afford to do without cost-augmenting and unnecessary encumbrances that might inhibit publication. The accents and stress indicators used for this dictionary at the time of writing were available on Microsoft Word ‘United States – International Keyboard’ and are usually available in other default options on most computers. As already stated, they do not need to be used by native speakers.

It is impossible to give all the variations of sounds that might be encountered from Kalderash speakers across the world. Those interested in this area should consult the following: A Handbook of Vlax Romani, by Ian Hancock, Slavica Publishers, Inc., 1995, which is listed in the bibliography of useful sources and the applicable audio sources outlined in Gypsy Dialects by Edward Proctor which is also listed under the bibliography.

The following pronunciation guide, designed for this phonetic system, will enable the student to pronounce Kalderash Romani and to understand it when it is spoken if he or she follows the guidelines indicated.

Vowels

French and Spanish words are given as Examples of pronunciation where feasible to assist bilingual French speakers in Canada and bilingual Spanish speakers in the US and Canada.

 Grapheme   Description 
a More like Spanish ‘mañana’ but the < a > in English father is close. A is longer when it is stressed than when it is not. Example; Zha! ‘Go!’ and shurya ‘cutlery.’
â A very short form of the above < a > sound as in English `bat.' Example; âmpochíl ‘arbitrate.’
  In some Kalderash dialects, especially in France and North America, the final < e > in the dative case is shortened and sounds more like < â > is in mángâ for mánge or raklèskâ for raklêske.
ã The < aw > sound as in English ‘awful’. Example; kwãsa ‘scythe.’
e As in French ‘allé’ or the < ai > sound in English ‘pain.’ Examples; rakle ‘non-Romani boys,’ bakre ‘sheep.’
ê Between the < e > in English ‘bed’ and Spanish ‘huevo.’ Examples; amên ‘us’ mênshiya ‘ball.’ The < e > sound in English ‘men’ is very close. Some speakers pronounce this as a schwa sound which does not exist in English in which case kher ‘house’ sounds something like khûr.
i Like the < ee > sound in English ‘seem.’ Examples; iv ‘snow’ or rakli ‘non-Romani girl.’
î Close to the < i > sound in English ‘tin.’ Example; tînzhíri ‘frying pan, skillet.’
o The long < o > of English ‘home’ or French ‘eau.’ Example; raklo ‘non-Romani boy.’
ô Close to English sound in got, or Spanish ‘hombre.’ Example; drôm ‘road.’ In American Kalderash, many speakers pronounce the < ô > as < â > because of the influence of American pronunciation of English. Thus shôto ‘big shot’ becomes shâto just like American English ‘hot’ is often pronounced ‘hat’ by Americans. This should be avoided with European speakers of Kalderash.
u The long < oo > sound as in English ‘you.’ Spanish ‘luna’ or French ‘vous.’ Example; tu ‘you’ manush ‘male person, human being, elderly man.’
û A very short vowel sound like the < u > in English ‘under.’ It is a centralised and unrounded vowel sometimes represented in Romani by < ï > or < ü > with an umlaut as a diacritic. Examples; zûn (zün) ‘saddle,’ atvtsûn (avtsïn) ‘steel.’ The English < u > as in ‘under’ can be used in the meantime. See also Hancock, I., 1995 p.45, rrïnza ‘chitterlings.’
y When < y > used in this alphabet as a ‘glide’ or ‘semi-vowel’ it is a short < y > sound which often replaces the terminal long < ee > sound in words like bakri ‘ewe’ or sapní ‘female snake’ when these singular nouns become plurals as in bakrya and sapnya and in their oblique declensions such as bakryánsa and sapnyánsa.
  In English, with words ending in < ia >, the pronunciation convention is to pronounced words like Maria as if it were written Maríya ignoring the obvious glide in the actual pronunciation. In the dictionary, Romani words like síniya ‘chair’ do not use the English convention of sínia but include the < y > as a glide to properly represent the phonetics of Kalderash since the alphabet used in the dictionary is totally phonetic and cannot employ English non-phonetic spelling conventions. When < y > is used as a consonant as in yalovítsa ‘sterile women or female animal’ it has the English value of < y > as in ‘yellow.’ When it immediately follows a consonant, it is a glide as in grasnya ‘mares.’ When used between two vowels it has the linking value of a glide as in the name Maria but written as Maríya to indicate the linking glide as in síniya ‘table.’


Vowel Stress

Kalderash Romani and Vlax-Romani dialects in general normally place the stress on the last vowel in the word as in baxtalo ‘lucky’ or wudar ‘door’. No stress indicators will be shown for these entries. When the stress falls on any vowel other than the last, it will be indicated as follows: láda ‘trunk, chest,’ (stress on the first vowel) masári ‘butcher’ (stress on the second vowel), barvalo ‘rich’ where the stress falls on the third or last vowel and which does not need to be indicated. Stress position can change depending on where the word appears in a sentence. We can have a sentences like: Wo si manush barvalo ‘He is a wealthy man,’ (stress on last vowel, barvaló) or O bárvalo manush mulo ‘The wealthy man died.’ (In this second Example; the stress in < bárvalo > is on the first vowel not the last. The sentences which accompany many of the entries will show how this occurs in speech patterns.

When the diacritics â, ã, ê, î, ô, û, are used to indicate vowel sound, the stress accents will be indicated, even if the stress falls on the last vowel as in mômêlí ‘candle’ unless the vowel marked with the pronunciation mark is to be stressed. Examples; mênshiya ‘ball’ (stress falls on the first vowel), pônyáva ‘carpet,’ (stress falls on the second vowel of the word and drômorró ‘small, narrow road.’ (stress falls on the third or last vowel). In a very few words, all vowels in the word may be â, ã, ê, î, ô, or û, and in this case, the vowel to be stressed will appear not with the accent < ^ > but with the French grave accent < ` >. Example; vôrdòn ‘caravan’ where both vowels are pronounced < ô >.

Falling Diphthongs

 Grapheme   Description 
ai Similar to the sound of English ‘high’ or ‘rye.’ Example; nai ‘finger.’ When the nominative noun nai has a case ending added to it the diphthong usually becomes < aiy- > with the case ending added. Example; naiyêsa ‘with the finger.’ The < y > is a glide between the diphthong and the added case ending. Note: Case endings are covered in the grammatical synopsis of this dictionary.
ei Rarely used, mainly as an interjection (Hey, watch out!) or in songs. It sounds like the < ey > in English ‘hey!’ without the < h >. Example; Éi, shavále! ‘Hey, Romani boys!’
oi Close to the sound of English ‘oyster’ or ‘boy.’ Example; gunoi. ‘rubbish.’ When words with this sound have case endings added the < oi > becomes < oiy- > with the case ending added. Example; gunoiyêsa ‘with the garbage.’
ui A difficult sound for English speakers, like the ouille > in French ratatouille. Example; mui ‘mouth.’ As with < ai > and < oi >, the < ui > becomes < uiy- > when the nominative has an oblique or case ending added to it. Example; muiya ‘mouths.’

Note: In words like shey ‘Romani girl, daughter,’ and dey ‘mother’ there is a slight < -y > sound after the < -e >. This is not a diphthong.

Rising Diphthongs

 Grapheme   Description 
ya Typical in plural endings of feminine nouns. Gazhya ‘non-Romani women,’ or fyal ‘type.’
yi Typically in rroiyi ‘spoon’.
yo Typical in passive and athematic verb conjugations. Baryol ‘He/she grows bigger.’

Stress of Diphthongs

When diphthongs are stressed, the stress is shown on the first letter of the double vowel but the double vowel is stressed as a single sound. Example; cháiniko (chái-niko), ‘tea pot.’ When not stressed, no stress mark appears. Example; raikano (rai-kanó) ‘elegant,’ where stress falls on last final vowel.

Consonants

 Grapheme   Description 
b Close to English < b > Examples; beshel ‘he/she sits’ and basmáli ‘shawl’.
c Not used by itself in this phonetic system except in < ch >. In Europe, many Romani phonetic systems use this sound to represent the < ts > sound as in ‘itself.’ of this phonetic system.
ch A hard < ch > sound not like English ‘cheer’ but more like ‘chatter’ as in chiriklo ‘male bird.’ There are actually two < ch > sounds in Kalderash Romani, one < chh > is more aspirated than the other. (See Hancock, I, p. 39). Many Kalderash sub-dialects change this aspirated < chh > sounds to a < sh > sound. In the dictionary the alternate < chh > sound is not used. Instead, it appears as < sh > which is common in North-American Kalderash and in many European Kalderash and related dialects. So what will be chhavo or chhav ‘Romani boy’ in some European dialects will be written as shavo or shav in the dictionary. See < sh > following in this pronunciation guide.
d A dental < d > as in French or Spanish with the tongue touching the back of the top teeth. Examples; dav ‘I give’ diwáno ‘meeting, discussion.’
dj Close to the < j > sound of English ‘Jack.’ Examples; djédjêsh ‘train’ djéla ‘thing, matter’ djungalo ‘ugly.’ Some speakers pronounce this sound more like a < dy > as in < dyéla > for djéla while with others, it is closer to a < dzh > sound.
f Close to English. Examples; fárba ‘paint,’ fakalêtso ‘rolling pin.’
g Hard < g > as in English ‘got’. Examples; gitára ‘guitar,’ galav ‘saddle bag’. In this phonetic system, this sound should never be pronounced as in English ‘George.’ (See < dj > preceding.)
h Like English < h > in hammer. Example; harmasári ‘stallion.’
j Not used in this phonetic system except in combination with < d > in < dj >. In European-Romani phonetic systems, the < j > is often used to represent the consonant < y > as in ‘yellow.’
k Close to the English sound in ‘cat.’ A hard < k > sound, not like English ‘kismet.’ Example; kukurúzo ‘Indian corn.’
kh An aspirated < k > sound like the < kh > in workhorse. Examples; kher ‘house’ or khaini ‘chicken.’
l Closer to the English < l > in ‘glue’ than in ‘lend.’ Examples; lav ‘I take,’. alav ‘word.’
ly This is actually a single sound in Romani. Example; raklya ‘non-Romani girls.’ It is close to the < ll > in Castilian Spanish as in llamar or the < gl > in Italian voglio. Standard Canadian/American English < li > in ‘valiant’ or ‘Valium’ is close.
m English value as in ‘mother.’ Examples; mobíli ‘automobile’ mômêlí ‘candle.’
n English < n > can be used here but in Romani, it is usually a dental sound with the tongue touching the upper front teeth. Examples; kána ‘when’ nanári ‘pineapple.’ In some Kalderash dialects. especially in North America, the < -n > is sometimes dropped in words like rani or Rromani which become raiyi ‘lady’ and Rromayi as in Rromayi buki ‘Romani business.’
ng When < n > and < g > appear together in a Romani word, they are pronounced as in English ‘mango‘ and never like two separate sounds as in ‘man go.’ Examples; bangyarev ‘I bend,’ lêngo ‘theirs,’ bêng ‘devil.’
ny When < n > is followed by the glide or semi-vowel < y > it becomes one sound like the Spanish < ñ > in mañana or the < ny > in English ‘canyon.’ Examples; sapnya ‘female snakes,’ (plural of sapni).
p Like English < p > in ‘spot.’ Examples; pái ‘water’ and papírya ‘documents.’ It must be born in mind that < p > in English, has more of an aspirate sound that it has in Kalderash, French or Spanish.
ph An aspirated Do not pronounce it as an < f > as in English ‘phone.’ This < ph > sound in Romani is close to the English sound in ‘haphazard.’ Examples; phúrdav ‘I blow’ and phurt ‘footbridge.’
q Not used in this orthography.
r Close to Spanish < r > as in ‘Pedro,’ and made with the top of the tongue. The < r > must be clearly heard, not slurred or drawled as is common in American, Canadian and British English. Examples; rai ‘gentleman’ ródav ‘I seek, search.’ Many American Roma, whose Romani is influenced by American sounds, when writing words like bari on Internet chat lines, write this as < badi < because of the tapped < r > in American English. Example; Woy see badi koodva. for Woi si bári kúrva. ‘She is a real bitch.’ Many non-Romani speakers often hear this < r > as English < l > and thus hear zalzáilo for Kalderash zalzáiro ‘acid.’
rr In some Kalderash dialects, for Example; in Canada , the US and parts of Latin America, in France and other countries of Europe, the Kalderash < rr > is pronounced from the throat (a guttural) like German roust or the Continental French < r > as in rendez-vous. It should sound like an uvular < rr > made when a person gargles. Examples; Rrom ‘Romani man,’ or ‘husband;’ Rromni, ‘Romani woman’ or ‘wife;’ rrai ‘switch, can’ burr ‘bush, thicket.’ Ask a native speaker to say rai ‘gentleman’ and rrai ‘cane/switch’ for the differences in sound.
    In North America and in some western European Kalderash dialects, the guttural < rr > can affect the vowels < e >, < i > and to a lesser extent, < û >, when they immediately follow the < rr >. In this case, múrre ‘mine’ becomes múrrü, sheyorri ‘young girl’ becomes sheyorrü or shyórrü and bizerrûwo ‘embroidery’ becomes bizerrüwo. (See also < û > in the vowel section preceding this section for explanation of < ü > and < ï > which do not appear in the dictionary. Those learning Romani do not have to use these sounds since European Roma who do not use them are perfectly understood by speakers of American Kalderash who do use them. They, in turn, however, may have difficulty understanding native speakers of North-American Kalderash who often say shyorrï for European-Kalderash sheyorri ‘young girl.’)
    In some other Kalderash and Vlax-Romani dialects the < rr > sound is often retroflexed or trilled. The < rr > must be clearly heard and not slurred. It is not the same sound as < r > given above in this alphabet which is a different sound. (See Hancock, I, 1995, p.9/10. For beginners, a clearly pronounced < r > will do for both sounds until they can hear these sounds from native speakers or from a cassette or CD. In Britain, the Scottish < r > sound, while not exactly the Romani sound, would be better than the standard drawled or slurred English < r > as in ‘Robert.’ Examples; rroiyi ‘spoon’ rrátsa ‘duck.’
s Similar to English < s > in ‘sea.’ This is never slurred to become a < z > sound as it is in English, for Example; the final < s > in ‘strangers,’ or the < s > in ‘business.’ Examples; sim ‘I am,’ sap, ‘male snake,’ skamin ‘chair.’
sh The English sound as in ‘shears’ will be close enough. There are at least two different < sh > sounds in Romani, one as in shêl ‘one hundred’ and shîl meaning ‘cold, flue.’ In shêl meaning one hundred, the tongue is forward on the palate but in shîl, meaning ‘cold, flue,’ it is curled backwards towards the throat. Beginners can ignore this difference until they become familiar with the sounds from native speakers or recordings. Many European speakers often pronounce the sound as they do the < sh > sound in the non-Romani language they also speak. Examples; shib ‘tongue, language’ shoro ‘head’ shoshoi ‘male rabbit.’ The slight differences in sound will not prevent the student from being understood or to understand spoken Romani.
t A dental < t > sound and unaspirated (without the puff of air) like the English < t > in ‘top.’ But in Romani, the tongue should touch the back of the upper front teeth. Examples; tu ‘you’ and tudkála ‘coal tar.’
th An aspirated dental < t > sound suggesting a puff of air after the < t > something like the combination < th > in English ‘hothouse’. This sound should never be pronounced like < th > in English ‘think’ or as in thud meaning a loud noise. The < th > sound as in English ‘think.’ does not exist in Romani ands many speakers pronounce English ‘them’ as ‘dem.’ Examples; thud ‘milk,’ thuv ‘smoke’ and thagar ‘ruler.’
ts This is a single sound in Romani like the < ts > in English ‘itself’ or in Italian pizza. Examples; tsêra ‘tent,’ tsigára ‘cigarette,’ and tsirratsítsa ‘pittance.’
v This is a troublesome sound in Romani. Some ‘authorities’ on Romani admit to only one sound for what I have listed as a separate < v > and < w >. In my opinion, this is not justified by what I have been hearing for decades from native speakers from many countries and regions.
    Kalderash < v > is not a hard < v > like English ‘volatile’ but between English < v > and < w >, a softer < v > than in English. Not all Kalderash speakers pronounce it the same. With some, especially in the former Yugoslavia and in Hungary, a definite < v > can be clearly heard due to phonetic osmosis from the host-culture language as in voliv ‘I love,’ and vorbiv, ‘I talk.’ In Romanian Kalderash and among many North-American and French Kalderash speakers, the same words sounds like woliw or even ualiw, and worbiv. This become evident when native speakers pronounce the final < v > in the first person singular of verbs, for example, beshav ‘I reside’ which often sounds like besháw, or zhav ‘I go’ which sounds like zhao with a diphthong as in Italian ciao.
    When a word is regularly pronounced with a < v > sound, it will be indicated. Examples; vorrúto ‘disgusting’ or vádra ‘bucket.’ In the dictionary, I have used both < v > and < w > depending on how I most often hear the sound from speakers with whom I interact and how I normally pronounce the word in question.
w See entry for < v > above. When a word is almost always pronounced with the English value for < w > it will be indicated by this sound. Examples; wudar ‘door’ and wúlitsa ‘street.’
x A sound from the throat (guttural) like the < ch > in Scottish loch, Spanish justicia or German Achtung. Examples; xas ‘we eat,’ xoxavel ‘He is lying.’
y Pronounced like English ‘yellow’ when it is used as a consonant. Examples; Yádo ‘Hades’ and yalakráno ‘scorpion.’ See < y > under vowels for further explanation.
z Like English ‘zeppelin.’ Examples; zalzáiro ‘acid’ and zumin ‘soup.’
zh This sound is like the < zh > in ‘Doctor. Zhivago.’ It exists in English but is shown by different letters, for Example; the < z > in ‘azure’ or the < s > in ‘pleasure.’ Examples; zhav ‘I go,’ zhanav ‘I know,’ French < j > as in Jean.

....

2.5 Narrative

The following narrative was voluntarily provided by an American Kalderash speaker in a telephone interview with the author who was at the time, working as a reporter for a weekly entertainment magazine in Montreal. A garbled story had appeared in some of the US dailies about a “Gypsy kidnapping” where a “Gypsy prince” had eloped with a “Gypsy princess” and the father of the “princess” was accusing the father of the “prince” of kidnapping his daughter. The truth behind the story was simply the common problem of a teenage couple falling in love and eloping thereby creating a family problem by circumventing the custom of an arranged marriage and the provision of a dowry for the girl by the father of the groom. This was now a matter to be settled by the Kris Rromani or Tribunal of Elders. All names have been changed to protect the actual participants in this typical American-Romani event. As will be seen, a lot of English and some athematic items from Spanish are intermixed with the Romani and some grammatical errors appear in Romani, both of which are common with native speakers in the US where many Kalderash speakers are also fluent in Spanish.

Oráit! Ashun so mothav túke me, Raiya.

All right. Listen to what I am telling you, Sir.

Kána las ame boriorra, das darrorro ka o Rrom kai pokis amari debida. Zhanes tu kodya buchi.

When we take brides, we give a small gift/dowry to the man (father of the bride) to honor our obligation. Do you know this custom?

Oráit! O Rrom godo, O Stankovitch, is Machwáya, halyares.

All right! That man, Stankovitch, is Machwaya, you understand.

Me sim Kalderash, ashunes. Wo si ánda Machwáya, ánda Stankovitches, oráit.

I am Kalderash, you hear. He is out of (the) Machwaya, out of (the) Stankovitches, OK!

O Rrom kathe, zhanes, me sim xanamik le Rromêsa orédi. Si ma bori mánde, mánde si bori lêstar de trin, shtar bersh mai phurane. Halyares?

The man here, you know, I am a co-father-in-law {Note: (This is a special relationship between the parents of the groom and the parents of the bride that has no kinship term equivalent in English.} with him already. I have a daughter-in-law at my place, I have a daughter-in-law from him, three, four years ago. Do you understand?

Godya Rromni si separetime. Mekla lêski Rromni de trin bersh. Wo mekla e Rromni thai lyas Gazhi pála pêste, halyares. Ándo Mobile beshel godo Rrom, Alabama.

That woman (Stankovitch’s wife) is separated. He (Stankovitch) left his wife three years ago. He left the Romani wife and took up with a non-Romani woman, you understand. That man (Stankovitch) lives in Mobile. Alabama.

E Rromni nai la Rrom pála pêste, lazhya, hai lya Gazhya o Rrom pála pêste, nas e Rromni pála pêste, hai pêske lazhav, nashlítar ka pêsko dadorro, ashunes.

His wife does not have a husband with her, shame, and he (her husband) shacked up with a non-Romani woman, he doesn’t have his Romani wife with him, and because of his disgrace, she (his wife) fled to her dear father, you hear.

Now, kána murri bori e mai phurani, si naswali, glatása avel la pretty soon, mangla e Rromni, múrri xanamik, te al te dikhel pêska sha, halyares.

Now, when my daughter-in-law, the previous one, becomes, pregnant, she will have a baby pretty soon, my co-mother-in-law (Stankovitch’s wife) wanted to come and visit her daughter, you understand.

Now, kána avili kathe e Rromni, andya pêske dades, pêska sha, pêska famílya kathe hai ánde í-ko la sheyorra kai nashadyas múrro shav de desh-u-shtare bershênge, halyares.

Now when she came here, and brought her father, her daughter, her family here and among them, the young daughter who forced my son who was fourteen to elope.

Kána andya la sheyorra, nashadyas o shavorro. Andem la pálpale.

When she brought the young daughter, she made the young boy elope. I brought her back.

Phendem le Rromêske: “Dikh, brey, Rróm, tu san mánsa xanamik. Me sim willing te pokinav kodya lazhav, sodogdya halyares tu?” Phenav, “Núma please na hamisáwo ka murri bori kai si kathe mai phurani pála mánde de trin bersh kê me chi dav gadala borya kai si mánde de trin bersh borya, halyares, kê kadya bori si mánde ánde tséra thai zhanav ke lashi savi godi múrra sha la.” Halyares?

I told the man (Stankovitch): “Look here. Man, you are a co-father-in-law with me. I am willing to pay for that disgrace. Whatever you feel (is right).” I say, “But please don’t meddle with my older daughter-in-law (Stankovitch’s married daughter) who has been with me for three years because I won’t give that daughter-in-law who is with me since three years, you understand, because that daughter-in-law is with me in the household for three years a daughter-in-law, you understand and I know that she is good, just like she was my own daughter.” You understand.

Now o Rrom mangla mándar desh-u-pansh mil tilára, halyares so mothav túke, pe e shey godya kai nashadyas múrro shav.

Now the man (Stankovitch) demanded from me fifteen thousand dollars, you understand what I’m telling you, for that daughter, who made my son elope.

Me phendem lêske: “Kíden sa le Rromen kathe ándo kádo them, ándo Dallas, ándo Houston, thai haiden kathe mánde ándo múrro fóro.”

I told him: “Gather all the family heads in this State, in Dallas, in Houston, and come here to my place in my town.”

Dyam-ame ánde Rrómani kris, mánde, ándo fóro ándo múrro kher, matter of fact.

We held a Romani trial where I was, in town, in my house, as a matter of fact.

Now, a Rrom phendya: “De ma desh-u-pansh míyi dilára te kipisar kya borya,” Kadya lêski bori.

Now, the man (Stankovitch) said: “Give me fifteen-thousand dollars to keep your (new) daughter-in-law.” That was his daughter.

“But mangávas te dav swáto múrre shavêsa po tilifóno ke anes la mánde te pushav la me, si mangel te beshel túte or pála múrro shav o mai terno.”

“I would like very much to speak on the phone with my son that he should bring her to my place so that I can ask her if she wants to live with you or with my younger son.”

Me phendem: “Nai bari buki, xanamíka.”

I said: “It’s not a big deal, co-father-in-law.”

Dav swáturya e boryorri, won dine swáto po tilifóno, las, thai iláko dad, ilêske dey, e mami, o pápo. Wo phendya lênge sheyorri murri te beshel hai te pakil pês mándar.

I conversed with the daughter-in-law, they conversed with her on the phone, her and also her father, her mother, her grandmother, the grandfather. He told their daughter to stay with me and to pay me respect.

Ashunes? Ke kerel o pápo te woi nashel pale again, halyares o swáto?

Do you hear that, the grandfather made her run back again. do you understand the conversation?

Pokisardyam ame le Rromes. Dem lês dêsh miyi tha pansh shela dilára pe pêska sha hai manglem te kerav abiyav.

We appeased the man (Stankovitch). I gave him ten thousand and five hundred dollars for his daughter’s dowry and I wanted to have a wedding.

O Rrom phendya ma: “Chi beshav láte akana nashen. De lên bule an lêngi bul hai mek zhan pêsko drom.” Halyares.

The man (Stankovitch) told me: “I will not live with them now they elope. Give them the shaft and let them go their own way.” You understand.

Now ke dem ka o Rrom le love, golótar o Rrom khere, pálpale ándo Mobile, Alabama.

Now that I gave the man his money (dowry) he went home, back to Mobile, Alabama.

Trin ges later, avilótar kathe ándo fóro thai ponisardya la ándo newspapers, thai ponisardya pe television stations thai ponisardya la te aven le Gazhe pe mánde te kindyam lêska sha pe desh-u-pansh míyi dilára katar e Rromni. Chi mai phenel ke wo lya le love. Núma mothol ke ame kindyam la katar e rromni, halyares?

Three days later, he came back here in town and put it in the newspapers, and on the television stations and caused the non-Roma to come came after me because we had bought his daughter for fifteen-hundred dollars. He never says that he got the money but he says that we bought her from the (his) wife. Understand?

Sa porrûl ame, o Rrom, pe le tirruma, porrûl ame pe le kastomáya kai drabar, ke ame keras amênge tilári dui. Halyares so mothav?

He squealed on us, the man (Stankovitch), about the tea rooms, the customers that we read, that we make a dollar or two. Understand?

Now, nai lashi buki si godya, Rróma. Sa le Rrom kai si kathe ánde Amérika, ame sam Rrom kai si respected. O Yóno, múrro pápo kai si ánde Florida ashundya ánda lêste, le Rrom ándo Chicago, ándo Boston, ánde Philadelphia, sa xoláile le Rrom pe lêste. Ashunes?

Now, it is not a good thing that, Roma! All the (Romani) people that are here in America. we are Roma who are respected. Yono, my grandfather who is in Florida heard about it, the Roma in Chicago, in Boston, in Philadelphia, they all became angry at him. You hear?

Kadya buki pe Amerikánski ke dar amênge, Ráiya, ka phenel wo kê bikinas amáre sheyan, kê mai avel kadka, o Gazho o chorro, zhanes, o lêske maniacs shai len le sheyorran po shtríto hay phenel: “Dav tumenge le desh mil dilári pe láte,” hai chorel la. Zhanes so si e buki.

This situation in America makes us afraid, Sir, that he says that we sell our daughters because it could happen like this, the bad non-Rom (Gadjo), you know, or his maniacs can grab the girls on the street and say: “I’ll give you ten thousand dollars for her,” and steal her. You know how this business goes.

So this is as far as it went akana. O Rrom dya-pe pe kris Amerikánski akana. Ame handelil la, Amerikánski buki sar zhaná-ma. So mai shai mothav túke, Ráiya.

So this is as far as it went now. The man (Stankovitch) has taken it to the American court now. We will handle it, it’s American business like I understand. What more can I tell you, Sir.


Athematic items in the foregoing

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English – Kalderash dictionary

A

a 1) There is properly no indefinite article in Romani. I saw (a) horse; Dikhlem grastes. 2) the numeral ekh/yekh can sometimes be used as indefinite article, especially in folk tales, poems and narrations; There was once ~ Rom who was ~ blacksmith… Sas ekh Rrom kai sas kawãchi…

abandon n yagalimos nm; wild ~, divliyomos nm

abandon v 1) del-pe comp/vt; He abandoned himself to drink. Dyas-pe ándo matomos. 2) mekel; vt He abandoned his family. Meklas pêski familíya. 3) mukel vt 4) pustil vt ( ~ land) 5) telyarel vt (~ camp).

abandoned pp/adj 1) meklo, muklo, pustime; ~ lot, pustime láto comp/nm 2) be/become ~ a) méklyol vi b) múklyol vi c) pustíl-pe v/refl 3) ~ land, pústa/pustíya nf (wasteland)

abandonment n mekimos/meklimos nm, pustimos nm

abase v 1) tsinyarel vt 2) xarnyarel vt

abasement n tsinyarimos nm, xarnyarimos nm

abate v 1) limpedil vt (make to ~) 2) limpedíl-pe v/refl 3) wushoríl-pe v/refl

abattoir n kêsapíya nf, matánsiya nf

abbey n abíya nf, manustíra nf

abbot n abiyash nm

abbreviate v 1) xarnyarel vt 2) ramol mai xarno vt/i/phr

abbreviated pp/adj 1) xarnyardo, xarnilo 2) be ~, xarnyárdyol vi 3) become ~, xarnyol vi

abbreviation n xarnomos nm

abdicate v 1) force to ~, ostavkil vt 2) ostavkíl-pe v/refl

abdicated pp/adj ostavkime

abdication nm ostavkimos nm

abdomen n gi nm (Anat), pûrr/pêrr nm (Anat), stómago nm (Anat)

abdominal adj pûrraló, pûrrèngo; ~ pain, dukh ándo gi

abduct v 1) chorel vt/i 2) nashavel vt; He abducted his daughter, Nashadyas lêska sha. 3) xutilel vt (grab, snatch)

abducted pp/adj 1) chordo, choradilo, nashado, xutildo 2) be ~ chórdyol vi, nashádyol vi, xutíldyol vi

abduction nm chorimos nm, nashayimos nm

abductor nm chor nm, nashayitóri nm, xutilitóri nm

aberrate v parruvel vi

aberrated pp/adj 1) parrudo 2) be ~, parrúdyol vi

aberration n djungáto nm: djúnga nf, parruyimos nm

abhor v vorrûtsíl vt; I ~ those people. Vorrûtsív kodolên.

abhorrence n vorrûtsíya nf, vorrûtsomós nm

abhorrent adj griyatsáko, vorrûto

abide v id 1) ashel vi 2) azhukerel vt (await) 3) trayil pála; They ~ by their laws. Trayin pála pênge zakóya. 4) nakhavel vt; I can't ~ that man. Nashti nakhavav godole murshes.

ability n buzhanglimos/xaranomos (in business), dashtimos nm (to do smthg); id He has no ~. Nai lês gogi/Diló-lo.

ablaze adj 1) yagalo; She was ~ with enthusiasm. Yagali sas. 2) set ~ a) phabarel vt b) phabol vi; The house was ~. Phabólas o kher. see also burn v 3) set ~, del yag comp/vt; He set the rubbish ~. Dyas yag o gunoi.

able adj 1) hárniko, tívo, xarano, xlûtro/xîtro 2) shai v/aux; I am ~ to do it. Shai te kerav/Shai kerav 3) make smbdy ~ to, dashtil vt 4) be ~ to, a) dashtíl-pe v/refl; I was not ~ to do so. Chi dashtisáilem te kerav. B) zhanel vt/i (be ~ to/know how to); Do you know how to plate copper? Zhanes te hanos archíchi? 3) not to be to, a) nashti; He is not ~ to attend. Nashti avel. with vb to be and dat pron in pst tense; I was not able to attend. Nashti sas mánge te zhav. b) nashtíl-pe; I was not ~ to work. Nashtisáilem te kerav buki.

able-bodied adj sasto, sastevêsto

abnormal adj chudáto (freakish/odd); He's not normal. Chudáto si/Nai normálo.

aboard adv 1) andre/andrû; Go ~! Zha andre! 2) prep po; We met ~ ship. Maládilam po vapóri.

abode n kher nm, than nm, shátra nf, vátra nf

abolish v 1) mudarel vt 2) peravel vt 3) skêpíl vt

abolished pp/adj 1) mudardo, perado, skêpimé 2) be ~, mudárdyol vi, perádyol vi, skêpíl-pe v/refl

abominable adj vorrûto

abomination n vorrûtsomós nm

abort v 1) shúdel (miscarry); She aborted/miscarried her child. Shudyas láki gláta. 2) ashavel ( task/mission); They aborted the flight. Ashade o hurimos.

aborted pp/adj 1) shudino (fetus), ashado (mission) 2) be ~, shudínyol vi, ashádyol vi

abortion n shudimos (miscarriage) nm

about prep 1) ánda, pa; What's she crying ~? Ánda sóste rovel? They are arguing ~ money. Xan-pe pa l' love. 2) palal/pála; I learned ~ herbs from herbalists. Sikilem palal l' draba katar le drabarnya. The man has come to see ~ the car (for sale). Avilo o gazho pála o mobíli. 3) adv kruyal (about around); He's wandering ~ the city. Phirel kruyal o fóro. 4) id/phr si-kai (there are ~), sas kai (there were ~); There are ~ a hundred cars in the lot. Si kai shel mobíliya ándo láto, There were ~ fifty people at the feast. Sas kai pínda zhene kai sláva. It is ~ one month since he left. Si ka'kh shon desar golótar (here kai yekh is contracted to ka'kh). 4) be ~ to, id; He is ~ to depart. Si te zháltar. He was ~ to eat. Sas te xal. I was ~ to depart. Símas te zhávtar.

above adv/prep 1) opre, opral 2) from ~, de opral, opral 3) id/phr ~ all, opral de sya.

above n opruno 2) adj opruno

aboveboard adj pakivalo, phuterdo

abrasion n rranglimos nm

abrasive adj, rranglimásko, zoralo

abridge v 1) shinel vt/i 2) xarnyarel vt

abridged pp/adj 1) shindo, xarnyardo 2) shíndyol vi, xarnyárdyol vi

abridgement n shinimos nm, xarnyarimos nm

abroad adv inkyal e máriya (across the sea), ánde l' thema (in foreign countries)

abrupt adj bi-snatáko, xarno

abruptly adv bi-snatáko, xarnes

abscess n beshúka nf, beshuchítsa nf (small ~)

abscond v nashel vi; He absconded with the money. Nashlas le lovênsa.

absent adj 1) duritno, hulado 2) id; He's not here/He's ~. Nai kathé-lo. Who is not here (absent)? Kon nai kathe? 2) absent-minded a) bishterimásko b) id; le chiriklênsa (with the birds); He is ~. Wo si le chiriklênsa. c) bishtrél-pe v/refl (be absent-minded/forget oneself)

absolute adj baro, chísto; ~ fool chísto dilo comp/nm

absolutely adv chaches, wórta

absolution v grizhomos nm, wuzhyarimos-bezaxêndar comp/nm, yertimos nm

absolve v 1) grizhol vi 2) wuzhyarel vt (of blame/guilt/sins) 3) yertil vt (pardon)

absolved pp/adj 1) wuzhyardo, wuzhyardilo, yertime 2) be ~, wuzhárdyol vi, yertíl-pe v/refl

absolvement nm wuzhyarimos nm

absorb v 1) pel/piyel vt/i (liquid) 2) kídel vt/i (acquisitions) 3) xal vt/i (as an acid) 4) sikyol vi (through learning) 5) nakhádyol vi (in tin plating/wipe-tinning); We apply the tin when it can be absorbed. Thas e archítsa kána nakhádyol. 6) nakhavel vt

absorbed pp/adj 1) pilo, kidino, xalo, xalilo, sikilo, nakhadilo 2) be ~, piyél-pe v/refl, kídél-pe v/refl, xályol vi, nakhádyol vi

absorbent adj piyimásko

absorbent cotton nm bumbáko, pamúko nm

absurd adj asamásko, dilo, malado

absurdity n asamáski djéla comp/nf, dilimos nm

abundance n predimos nm; id There was an ~ of food. But xabe sas.

abundant adj but

abundantly adv but, dósta

abuse n akushimos nm (verbal), kinowimos nm (emotional/physical), marimos nm (physical), kíno nm, nêkázo nm (emotional), stramimos nm, sîlowimós nm (sexual), pipiyimos nm & limos pe sîla comp/nf (sexual), xoli nf (mental)

abuse v 1) akushel (verbally) 2) marel vt (beat) 3) kinowil vt (illtreat) 4) del chórro tráyo vt/i/phr (give a bad life); Her husband abuses her. Láko Rrom del la chórro tráyo. 5) kiniwíl-pe v/refl ~ oneself, be abused 6) stramil vt 7) sîlowíl vt 8) pipiyil vt & lel pe sîla vt ( ~ sexually) 9) kerel nêkázo (cause emotional distress); They are abusing us. Kerel amênge nêkázo.

abused pp/adj 1) akushlino (verbally), kinowime (physically), azbado (groped), mardo (beaten), nêkazhimé (emotionally), stramime, sîlowimé (sexually) 2) be ~, azbádyol vi (be groped), kinowíl-pe v/refl (physically), márdyol vi (physically), pipiyíl-pe v/refl (sexually), stramíl-pe v/refl, sîlowíl-pe v/refl (be raped)

abuser n kinowitóri nm/kinowitórka nf, sîlowitóri nm, pipiyitóri nm

abusive adj akushimásko (verbally)

abyss n bi-fundóski húniya nf/phr

academia n akadémiya nf

academic adj akademikósko

academic n akadémiko nm: akademikútsa nf

academy n akademíya nf

accelerate v sigyarel vt/i

accelerated pp/adj 1) sigyardo 2) be ~, sigyárdyol vi

acceleration sigyarimos nm

accelerator n pedálo (Am)

accent n achénto/aksênto

accented adj phanglo; ~ speech shib phangli comp/nf

accept v 1) lav vt/i 2) nakhavel vt; I won't accept that. Chi nakhavav kodya. 3) mekel vt/i; They wouldn't accept him into the union. Chi mekle lês ánde kumpániya. 4) id We can't ~ that. Nashti beshas míshto kodolása. He won't accept it. Chi kamel. They accept (believe) everything they hear. Pakyan sáva kai ashunen. 5) We refuse to ~ that. Chi mangas kodya.

acceptance n limos nm

accepted pp/adj 1) lino, linilo 2) be ~, línyol vi

access n 1) akséso nm, dimos andre comp/nm, drom nm 2) give ~, del andre; I gave him ~, Dem lês andre. 3) gain ~, del andre; He gained ~ from the roof. Dyas andre katar o taváno.

access v del andre comp/vt; He accessed the Internet, Dyas andre o Internéto.

accessibility n dímos andre comp/nm

accident n aksidênto nm, pharrayimos nm (crash, smash up), prepedyála nf

accidentally adv nacháino, slucháino

acclaim n asharimos nm, lewudimos nm, vêstimós nm

acclaim v 1) asharel vt 2) lewudil vt 3) vêstíl vt

acclaimed pp/adj 1) ashardo, lewudime, vêstimé 2) be ~, ashárdyol vi lewudíl-pe v/refl, vestíl-pe v/refl

accommodate v maládyol vi; The house can ~ all the family. O kher shai maládyol sa e familíya.

accommodated pp/adj 1) maladilo 2) be ~, maládyol vi

accommodation n 1) sóba nf (room) 2) than nm (place, space); We were not able to find any ~. Nashti arakhlyam than te beshas.

accompaniment n akompanimos nm, báso nm (Mus)

accompanist n akompanyash nm: alompanyáshka nf (Mus)

accompany v 1) zhal with inst; Zhav túsa. I will ~ you. 2) akompanil vt & basil (in music); Dé-ba! basiv tut! Play! I'll ~ you (with rythmn base).

accomplice n wortáko ánde béda nm: wortáika ánde béda nf

accomplish v 1) aresel vt/i 2) del ándo gor vi/phr (~ one's goals) 3) kerel vt (do/make)

accomplished pp/adj 1) areslo, kerdo, sikado 2) be ~, aréslyol vi, kérdyol vi, sikádyol vi

accomplishment n aresimos nm, dímos ándo gor nm/phr, kerimos nm

accordance n in ~ with, pála; They live in ~ with Romani laws. Trayin pála e Rromaníya.

according (to) adv ~ to what he says, pála so mothol.

accordingly adv pála godya

accordion n gormóniya/gormoníya nf

accordionist n gormonyásh nm: gormonyáshka nf

accost v ashavel vt; I accosated him on the street. Ashadem lês ánde úlitsa.

accosted pp/adj 1) ashado 2) be ~, ashádyol vi

account n diwáno nm, ginimos nm (count), híro nm (verbal ~), kónta (bank ~), mothayimos (narrative), pátsuma (sake), sokáta nf, sokotimos nm, stóriyo (account of, description); on my ~, pe múrri pátsuma.

accountant n bankazhívo nm, sokotásh nm: sokotáshka nf

accounting n ginimos nm, sokotimos nm

accoutrements n sersámo

accumulate v id 1) kerél-pe mai but v/phr (make itself greater/more) 2) baryol vi 3) kídel vt

accumulated pp/adj 1) barilo, kidino 2) be ~, a) baryol vi b) kidiníl-pe vi

accumulation n barimos nm, kidemos nm

accurate adj chacho/chachuno (true), wórto (straight)

accurately adv chaches, wórta; The gun shoots ~; E púshka del-yag wórta.

accusation n bangyarimos nm, dosh nf, dosharimos nm, pôrrûmós nm

accuse v 1) bangyarel vt 2) dosharel vt 3) pôrrùl/pôrríl vt 4) thol béda pe (vt/phr) (place an accuisation on); She accused him of stealing from her. Thodyas béda pe lêste ke chordyan látar.

accused n doshardo nm: doshardi nf

accused pp/adj 1) bangyardo, doshardo, pôrrûmé 2) be ~, bangyárdyol vi, doshárdyol vi, pôrrùl-pe vi

accuser n dosharno nm: dosharni nf; pôrrûtóri nm: pôrrûtórka nf

accustomed adj 1) sikado; I'm ~ to hearing this. Sikado sim te ashunav kadya. 2) become ~ to, del-pe with inst of object; We will become ~ to it/them with time. Vramyása, dás-ame lésa/lása/lênsa (object `it' inflected for gender and number)

ace n túzo nm (in a suit of cards)

acerbity n kerkomos nm

ache n dukh nf

ache v 1) dukhal vi; My head aches. Dukhal ma o shorro. 2) dukhavel cause/make to ache; It gave me a headache. Dukhadyas ma o shorro.

achievable adj aresimásko

achieve v 1) aresel vt/i 2) del ándo gor vt/i/phr (achieve a goal) 3) dubil vt (win) 4) kerel vt 4) neril vt

achieved pp/adj 1) areslo, kerdo, kerdilo 2) be ~, áreslyol vi, kerdyol

achievement n aresimos nm, dimos ándo gor nm/phr, dubimos nm, dobundimos nm

achiever n dubitóri nm: dubitórka nf

acid n zalzáiro nm; ~ reflux, zalzáiro ánde pûrr nm/phr

acknowledge v prindjarel vt

acknowledged pp/adj 1) prindjardo, zhanglo 2) be ~, prindjárdyol vi

acknowledgement n prindjarimos nm

acne n blúdi nf/pl, lolimos nm, phugnya nf/pl

acorn n zhêro n

acoustic adj ashunimásko, bi-ilêktrikósko; ~ guitar, gitára bi-ilêktrikóski comp/nf

acoustics n ashunimos nm; How are the ~ in the hall? Si lasho ashunimos ándo hãlo?

acquaint v prindjarel vt

acquaintance n prindjardo nnm: prindjardi nf

acquainted with pp/adj 1) prindjardo, sikado 2) be ~, prindjárdyol vi, sikádyol vi

acquire v lel pêska comp/v/refl; He acquired a kot of money. Lyas pêske bare love. They acquired a lot of property. Line pênge but khera.

acquit v akharel bi-doshalo (declare to be guiltless)

acquitted pp/adj 1) akhardo bi-doshalo 2) be ~, akhárdyol bi-doshalo

acre n desetína nf

acreage n desetíni nf/pl

acrobat n gimnástiko nm: gimnástika nf, xutyamno nm: xutyamni nf

acrobatics n gimnástiya nf, tavalimáta nm/pl (somersaulting), xutyamnimos nm

across adv/prep inkyal, pêrdál; ~ from/on the other side of, pêrdál

act n ákto (statute) nm, djéla nf (as done), kerimos nm (doing); ~ of law, ákto krisáko comp/nm,

act v 1) kérdyol (behave) 2) kerél-pe (act like, pretend to be, imitate); They ~ like rich people. Kerén-pe barvale. 3) dilyáwol vi (~ the fool/behave in a silly manner); Na dilyáwo! Don't act stupidly!

acting adj temporáriyo nm

acting n dráma nf

action n áktsiya nf (action/initiative), hadéto nm, kerimos nm, kyúdo nm (deed), rodimos nm, vuchimos nm (of a guitar and similar instruments); court ~, áktsiya krisáki; I don't like his actions. Chi kamav lêske kyúdurya. The ~ (of the guitar) is not correct. O vuchimos nai wórta.

activate v 1) astarel vt 2) del te kerel vt/i/phr 3) kezdil vt 4) phutrel vt 5) startuwil vt 6) zhivindíl vt

activated pp/adj 1) astardo, kezdime, phuterdo, startuwime 2) be ~, astardyol vi, kezdíl-pe v/refl, phutérdyol vi, startuwíl-pe v/refl 3) become ~, zhivindíl-pe v/refl; The volcano became active. Zhivindisáilo o vulkáno.

activation n astarimos nm, kezdimos nm, phuterimos nm, startuwimos nm, zhivindimos nm

active adj aktívo, zhivindo (lively); id He's not very ~ nowadays. Chi kerel but kakale gesa.

activism n aktivísmo nm

activist n aktivísta nm/nf, aktivísto nm

activity n aktivitéto nm (nm/neolog), kerimos nm, mishkimos nm, mukimos nm

actor n aktóri nm, dramátiko nm, komedyash nm

actress n aktórka nf, dramátichka nf, komedyáshka nf

actual adj chacho, chachuno; This is the ~ man he referred to. Kako si a chácho Rrom káste dyas-dúma.

actuality n chachimos nm

acumen n talénto nm

acute adj skutsome (sharp), shinimásko

AD cont/neolog Pála-Kristóste

Adam n Adámo/Dámo nm; Adam's apple, yabuchítsa nf

adapt v parruvel vt/i

adapter n adaptóri (plug) nm

add v 1) ginel vt 2) sokotil/sogodil vt

added adj 1) gindo, opral (extra); Has it been ~ (to the total)? Gindo si? Is there any tax ~? Si hêrèsh opral?

addict n astardo nm: astardi nf; narkomanyáko (to drugs): narkomanyakútsa nf

addict v astarel vt.

addicted pp/adj 1) astardo 2) be ~, astárdyol vi 3) id; Piyel drógurya. He/She is addicted drugs. 4) id; He became addicted to drugs. Pelo ánde l' draba.

addiction n makyarnomos nm(to alchohol), narkomaníya nf (to drugs)

addictive adj astarimásko

adding machine n ginimáski mashúnka comp/nf

addition n adítsiya nf (~ to smthg), ginimos nm (count), sokotimos nm(of a bill/account)

additional adj/id 1) opral; He built an ~ room to the house. Kerdyas sóba opral pêske kherêste. They had to buy ~ food for the feast. Músai sas lênge te kinen mai but xabe la slaváke. 2) predimos nm (~ amount/extra)

address n adréso nm, swáturya nm/pl

adenoid n gêlka ándo nakh comp/nf; adenoids, gêlchi ándo nakh comp/nf/pl

adequate adj 1) make ~, dostuwíl vt 2) be ~, dostuwíl-pe v/refl

adequately adv dósta

adhere v 1) astarel vt/i 2) lipíl-pe v/refl 3) kleyól-pe v/refl

adhesive adj kleyimásko, gyantalo

adhesive bandage n sparadrápo nm

adhesive n gyánta nf, kléyo nm

adhesive n kléyo nm

adhesive tape n chívta nf, tépo nm (Am)

adjacent adj pasho, pashuno; It is the house ~ to us (our house). Si o kher mai-pashuno amênde.

adjourn v ashavel vt

adjourned pp/adj 1) ashado, ashadilo 2) be ~, ashádyol

adjournment n ashayimos nm

adjudicate v 1) beshel pe kris (sit on a trial) 2) krisil vt

adjudication n ashunimos nm, kris nf

adjudicator n adjudikatóri nm (on a non-Romani hearing/trial): adjudikatórka nf, krisinitóri nm (on the Kris-Rromani)

adjust v lasharel vt

adjusted pp/adj 1) lashardo 2) be ~, lashárdyol

adjustment n lasharimos nm

ad-lib v kerel improvátsiya comp/vi

administer v 1) del (justice/medicine)

administered pp/adj 1) dino, dinilo 2) be ~, dínyol vi

administration n administrátsiya nf; term of ~, kóleno nm

administrator nm administratóri nm: administratórka nf

admirable adj dragostóso, lasho, mûndro, pakivalo, shukar

admiral n admirálo nm

admiration n dragostíya nf

admiration n drágostya nf, pakiv nf

admire v 1) pakivil vt 2) volil vt (respect) 3) id I ~ you. Tu san mánge dragostóso/Tu san mánge drágo

admired part/adj 1) pakivime, volime 2) be ~, pakivíl-pe v/refl, volíl-pe v/refl

admission n 1) dímos andre comp/nm, mothodimos nm 2) How much is the admission? Sóde koshtil te des andre?

admit v 1) mekel andre vt/i (allow to enter) 2) mothol vt/i 3) phenel vt/i

admitted part/adj 1) meklo andre, meklilo andre, mothodo, phendo 2) be ~, méklyol andre vi, mothódyol vi, phéndyol vi

admonish v del trad comp/vt/i (give admonition)

admonished pp/adj 1) dino trad 2) be ~, dínyol trad

admonition n trad nf

adobe adj chikáko; ~ brick, chikáki stígla comp/nf

adolescence n ternimos/ternomos nm

adopt v 1) adoptil vt 2) kídel vt (~ customs, new words) 3) lel mashtívo - ( plus object); He adopted a son. Lyas mashtívo shav. 3) lel ánde tséra vt/phr (take into the family/tent); They adopted her. Line la ánde tséra.

adopted pp/adj 1) adoptime, mashtívo, lino ánde tséra 2) be ~, adoptíl-pe v/refl, línyol ánde tséra vi/phr

adoption nm adoptimos nm, kidemos nm, limos ánde tséra nm/phr, mashtivimos nm

adorable adj guglo, mûndro, shukar

adoration n drágostya nf, lewudimos nm, mûndríya nf, rádosta nf, volimos nm, wóya nf

adore v 1) kamel vt 2) volil vt

adored pp/adj 1) drago, dragostóso, kamado, volime 2) be ~, volíl-pe v/refl. volisávol vi

adorn v huryavel vt

adorned pp/adj 1) huryado 2) be ~, huryádyol vi

adornments n dikorátsiya nf, dorya nf/pl (ribbons), hurayimáta nm/pl (in an ófisa or temple)

adrift adj plivimásko; The boat came ~. Plivisáili e ladjíya.

adroit adj gogyaver, xarano, xlûtro/xîtro

adult adj baré-manushêngo, Rromêngo, Rromnyángo

adult n 1) baro manush nm: bari manushni nf, ~ son, shav o baro, ~ girl shey-bari nf, young people and adults terne shave hai bare manush 2) Rrom nm (married ~ male Rom) 3) Rromni nf (married ~ adult Romani woman) 4) Rroma nm/pl (married ~ Romani men and women) 5) Rromnya nf/pl (married ~ Romani women)

adulterate v hamil vt

adulterated pp/adj 1) hamime 2) be ~, hamíl-pe v/refl

adulterer n kurvári nm

adulterous adj kurvimásko; ~ relationship, kurvashágo nm; They got into an ~ relationship. Diné-pe ándo kurvashágo.

adultery n 1) kurvashágo nm; They committed ~, Diné-pe ándo kurvashágo. 2) commit ~, kurvíl-pe v/refl

adulthood n barimos nm

adultress n kúrva nf

advance n întrêgimós nm (Mil), wuzhilimos nm (monetary)

advance v 1) întrêgíl-pe v/refl (Mil) 2) del sherêste vi (get ahead) 3) zhal sherêste vt/i (go/move ahead) 4) del wuzhile vt/i (money); I advanced him a hundred dollars. Dem lês shel tiléri wuzhile. 5) thol mai angle vt/phr ( ~ the date of smthg)

advances n id; She made ~ towards him. Nashélas pála lêste. See flirt v

advantage n 1) dobúnda nf, házna nf, sîla nf (over) 2) be of ~ dobundíl-pe v/refl, hazníl-pe v/refl 3) take ~ of a) brivel vt b) hathavel vt c) lel pe sîla d) porravel vt e) xoxavel vt

advantageous adj haznáko, haznimásko

adventure n avdentúra nf

adventurer n hulyándro nm

adversarial adj dushmanítsko

adversary n dushmáno nm: dushmánka nf

adverse adj bibaxtalo, chorro, pharo

adversity n bi-baxt nf, chorrimos nm, dushmaníya nf, kíno nm, nekázo nm, pharimos

advertise v 1) advertaizíl vt 2) rrêspíl pamfléti comp/vt (distribute handbills around) 3) sikavel (demonstrate, show) 4) thol ánde hêrtíya (put in the newspaper); I put the car in the paper. Thodem o mobile ánde hêrtíya.

advertised part/adj advertaizime, sikado, thodino ánde hêrtíya

advertisement n ádo nm, afísha nf (wall poster), pamfléto nm (handbill), táblitsa nf (billboard)

advice n azhutimos nm, divinimos nm, drabarimos nm, sikayimos nm, sóveto nm

advise v 1) azhutil vt 2) del sóveto comp/vi; I advised him not to go. Dem lês sóveto te na zhal. 3) diwanil vt 4) drabarel vt 5) sikavel vt

advised pp/adj 1) azhutime, dino sóveto, drabardo, sikado 2) be ~, dínyol sóveto vi, drabárdyol vi, sikádyol vi

advisor n azhutóri nm: azhutórka nf, drabarni nf, profesóri nm

advocacy n advokasíya nf, azhutimos nm, ingarimos nm

advocate n advokáto m: advokatútsa nf; aktivísta nm/nf, azhutóri nm, swatash nm

advocate v 1) azhutil vt 2) ingarel vt

aegis n vátra nf

aeroplane nm aviyóno nm, aropláno nm

afar adv dural; from ~, de dural

affair n buki nf, djéla nf, kurvimos nm (illicit love affair), treyába nf

affect v 1) azbal vt/i 2) phabarel vt/i (emotionally)

affected pp/adj 1) azbado, phabardo 2) be ~, azbádyol vi, phabárdyol vi

affection n drágo nm, drágostya nf, kamimos nm, volimos nm

affectionate adj khamimásko, volimásko

affectionately adj dragósa, kamimása, volimása

affidavit n afidévito nm, potrokol nm

affinity n pashimos nm

affirmation n afirmátsiya nf, solax nf

afflict v 1) kerel nekázo comp/vt/i 2) kinowil vt 3) malavel vt 4) nêkazhíl vt 5) phabarel vt 6) id The Devil afflicted me with him. O Beng shudya lês pe mánde.

afflicted pp/adj 1) kinowime, malado, nêkazhimé, phabardo 2) be ~, kinowíl-pe v/refl, maládyol vi, nêkazhíl-pe v/refl, phabárdyol v/refl

affliction n kíno nm, naswalimos nm, nasul nm, nekázo, pharimos nm, zhávo nm

affluence n barvalimos nm

affluent adj barvalo, manginalo

afford v id; It's too expensive. Desya kuch si. We haven't enough money to ~ that. Nai amên dósta love te kinas godya.

affront n akushimos nm, dímos-po-lazhav nm/phr

Afghan adj Afganítsko; ~ (dog); Afganítsko zhukel comp/nm

Afghan n 1) Afgáno nm: Afganútsa nf

Afghanistan n Afganistáno nm

aflame adj yagalo, yag-dino

afraid adj 1) darano 2) dar with dat/pron (to have fear); He is ~ to go. Dar lêske te zhal. 3) daral vi be ~ to, fear to; She is afraid of him. Daral lêstar. Don't be ~! Na dara! 4) make ~, daravel vt 4) trashano 5) become ~, trashávol vi 6) be made ~, trashádyol vi

Africa n Áfrika often heard in pl of Áfrichi. We spent ten years in ~. Nakhlam desh bersh ánde l' Áfrichi.

African adj Afrikáko, Afrikanítsko

African n Afrikáno/Afrikánto nm, Afrikánka nf, Afrikanítska nf (an African language)

African-American n Kalorro nm: Kalyorri nf ; ~ music, Kalorrêngi muzíka nf

aft adj paluno, adv palal

after adj paluno

after adv/prep 1) pal/pála 2) ~ all, pála sya 3) conj after a) mai palal katar; He arrived ~ I left. Avilo mai palal katar me gêlèmtar. b) mai palorral katar 4) ~ that, pála godya/de-atunchára 5) adv ~ that, pórma (then)

afterbirth n materítsa nf

afternoon n misméri/mizméri nm, pála-mizméri nm

aftershock n pála-treséniya nf

afterwards adv mai palorral, mai posle

Afterworld n Rayo/Rrayo nm

again adv pale (again), pálpale (back ~), mai-yekh-dáta (once more), po nevo (anew)

against prep kóntra, mamui (Eur), prótivo/prótiv

age n bersh nm/pl, phurimos nm, vákto nm, véko nm; id What ~ is he? Sóde bershêngo si?/Sodêngo si? They are living in the stone ~. Trayin ándo bárruno vákto.

age v 1) phuryarel vt 2) phuryol vi

aged adj phuro (animates, phurano (inanimates); under-aged, desyá-terno comp/adj

aged pp/adj 1) phuryardo 2) be ~, phuryárdyol vi

ageing adj phurayimásko

agency n adjéntsiya nf, yagántsiya nf

agenda n adjénda nf

agent n adjénto nm: adjentáika nf; spiyóno nm (spy); yagánto nm: yagantútsa nf

agent n yagánto (real estate, etc)

aggrandize v 1) baryarel vt 2) phukyarél-pe v/refl; He's a self-aggrandizer. Phukyarél-pe.

aggrandizement baryarimos nm, phukyarimos (self ~)

aggravate v 1) badil vt 2) del xoli comp/vt 3) xolyarel vt 4) kerel mai gorde vt/i (make worse) 5) id lel-pe pála (with prep of object); Don't ~ me! Na mai le-tu pála mánde! 6) nêkazhíl vt

aggravated pp/adj 1) dino xoli, xolyardo, kerdo mai gorde 2) be/become ~, badíl-pe v/refl 3) nêkazhíl-pe v/refl 4) xolyárdyol vi 5) lel xoli us with pe (become ~ with); I became aggrevated by/with her. Lem xoli pe láte.

aggravation n badimos nm, khul nf (crap), nêkázo nm, xoli nf; I have had enough ~ from her. Xalem dósta xoli látar.

aggregate n sokotimos nm

aggression n marimos nm, shpidemos nm

aggressive adj 1) marimásko, shpidemásko 2) be/become ~, a) marél-pe v/refl b) shpídel-pe v/refl

agile adj xutimásko, zhivindo

agility n xutimos nm, zhivindimos nm

agitate v 1) buntuyil vt 2) izdravel vt 3) kinowil vt 4) nêkazhíl vt 5) xal-pe v/refl 6) zumbil vt

agitated pp/adj 1) buntuyime, izdrado, kinowime, nêkazhimé, nervóso, zumbime 2) be ~, buntuyíl-pe v/refl, izdrádyol vi, kinowíl-pe v/refl, nêkazhíl-pe v/refl, zumbíl-pe v/refl; The wasps are ~. Zumbín-pe le wêspi.

agitation n búnto nm buntuyimos nm, kíno nm nêkázo nm, nervosíya nf, zumbimos n, (of a beehive/was's nest)

agitator n buntash nm: buntáshka nf

aglow adj límpedo

ago adv de, id; I saw him two weeks ~. Dikhlem lês de dui kurke. I arrived one month ~. Avilem d'ekh shon. How long ~ can you remember? Sóde de vryámya shai seres? He died long ~. Mulo do-multano. I was there a long time ~. Símas kothe de domult.

agonized adj dukhayimásko, kinowimásko; ~ cry, kinowimásko tsipimos comp/nm

agonizing adj dukhalo, dukhayimásko, kinowimásko

agony n 1) dukh nf, dukhayimos nm, kíno nm, kinowimos nm 2) suffer ~. kinowíl-pe v/refl

agree v 1) id I ~ with you. Sim de akórdo túsa. 2) shinavel vt/i (agree on); They agreed on the fine. Shinade e glába.

agreement n 1) akórdo (accord), âmpochimós nm, halyarimos (convention/understanding), têrgo (deal), shinayimos nm 2) be in ~, I am in ~ with you. Sim d'akórdo túsa.

agriculture n agrikultúra nf; agricultural labour, buki pe l' férmi nf/phr, buki-phuvyáki comp/nf

agrimony n buzuyóko nm

aground adv 1) pe phuváte 2) run ~, del-pe pe phuváte; The boat ran ~. E ladjíya dyas-pe pe phuváte.

ahead adv 1) sherêste, adv/prep 2) ángla, anglal, angle; Go on ~! Zha anglal! Go forward. Zha angle!

aid n azhutimos nm (assistance), pomozhála nf (help); pomozhnik nm (assistant): pomozhnikútsa nf

aid v 1) azhutil vt 2) pomozhil vt

AIDs n 1) sída nf vt 2) contract ~, sidiyíl-pe v/refl 3) infect with ~, sidiyil vt 4) He has ~. Sidimé-lo.

ailing adj naswalo, naswalichóso

ailment n naswalimos nm

aim n gor nm (end/goal), tsegomos (of a weapon); What is your ~? So si tumáro gor?

aim v 1) tsegosarel/tsegol vt/i (a weapon) 2) id; He aims to succeed. Si pêsko gîndo te del ándo gor.

aimiable adj amalimásko

aimless adj bi-gorêsko

aimlessly adv bi-gorêskonès

air n balwal nf, háburo nm; ~ conditioner, konditsiyonéri nm; on the ~, po rádiyo

air v 1) balwalyarel vt 2) del balwal comp/vt

airborn adj 1) phakalo (winged) 2) be ~ ; avel le balwalênsa vi/phr; The plague was ~. Avilo o póno le balwalênsa. 2) ~ troops, kitáya parashutênsa comp/nm (Mil) 3) become ~, huryal vi; The plane is ~. Huryal o aropláno.

aircraft n aropláno, aviyóno nm (Eur)

airforce n aviyátsiya nf (Mil)

airline n líniya-aviyonêski comp/nf

airman nm aviyásh nm

airport n aropórto nm

airship n blímpo nm (Am), dirizhíbla nf (Eur)

ajar adj tsîrrá phuterdo adj/phr; He left the door ~. Meklas o wudar tsîrrá phuterdo

alabaster n alabástra nf; adj alabastráko

alarm n alárma nf (alarm system), dar nf (fear), darimos nm, nêkázo nm (nervous agitation), snat nf (warning), trash nf (apprehension); I gave the ~. Dem snat; ~ clock, bashimásko cháso comp/nm

alarm v 1) daravel vt (frighten) 2) del snat comp/vt/i (give~) 3) nêkazhíl vt 4) trashavel vt (terrify)

alarmed pp/adj 1) darado, dino snat, nêkazhimé, trashado 2) be ~, darádyol vi, dínyol snat comp/vt/i, nêkâzhíl-pe v/refl, trashádyol vi 3) Don't be ~! Na dara khánchi!

alarming adj darano, darayimásko, trashayimásko

Alas ! Interj Bezexa! Yái!

Alaska diamond n kali-daimánta comp/nf (hematite black diamond)

Albanian adj Albanezítsko nf

Albanian n 1) Albanézo nm: Albanezáika nf; Shiftári nm; Shiftárka nf 2) Albanezítska nf (Lang)

albino adj parno

alcohol n shpírto nm

alcoholic adj makyarno; ~ beverages, bravínta nf/pl, pimáta nm/pl (liquor supply)

alcoholic n 1) makyarno nm: makyarni nf 2) become an ~. id; He became an ~. Pelo ándo makyarnomos.

alcoholism n makyarnomos nm

alcove n sobítsa nf, sobítsa pashal comp/nf

alderman n kunselári nm: kunselárka nf

alert adj skutsome, xarano, zhivindo

alert v del snat comp/vt/i

alerted pp/adj 1) dino snat 2) be ~, dínyol snat comp/vt/i

Algeria n Lamurátsiya nf

Algerian n Lamurátso nm: Lamurátsa nf

alias n aver nav comp/nm, nav garado comp/nm, nav xoxamno nm; He used an ~. Dyas aver nav kai nas pêskorró. He is using an ~. Bushól-pe avre-navêsa. Have you ever used an alias? Mai zhanglán-tut telal aver anav?

alien adj avryá-planetáko (from space), avré-themêsko (from another country), iligálno nm; iliganútsa nf

alien n avryá-planetáko gazho comp/nm: avryá-planetáki gazhi comp/nf (from outer space), iligálno nm (illegal immigrant)

alienate v 1) duryarel vt 2) muril vt

alienated pp/adj 1) duryardo, murime 2) be ~, duryárdyol vi, muríl-pe v/refl

alienation n duryarimos nm, murimos nm

alight adj límpedo, starluchime, yagalo

alight adv ánde yag

alight v húlel vi (often with tele); The bird alighted. O chiriklo hulisto tele.

align v 1) maládyol vi 2) vt wortosarel/wortol vt

aligned pp/adj 1) maládilo, wortosardo/wortome 2) be ~, maládyol vi, wortól-pe v/refl, wortosávol vi

alignment n maladimos nm, wortomos nm

alike adj/adv yekh-fyálo/ekh fyálo; They look ~. Meyázon yekh-fyálo. They are both ~. Li dui si yekh-fyálo si. We think ~. Gîndís-ame yekh-fyálo.

alive adj 1) zhivindo, trayimásko 2) be ~, a) trayil vi b) zhível vi (Eur) 3) become/come ~, zhivindíl-pe v/refl

all adj/adv/pron 1) sa/sya, sáva; They ~ departed yesterday. Sa gêlèntar araki. It's ~ there is. Si sáva kai si. ~ his life, he worked on the carnivals. Kerdyas buki pe l' karniválurya sa pêsko tráyo. 2) adj sa, sorr/ sórro; He ate ~ the ham. Xalyas sórro shônko. 3) Note: compounds with all; 1) ~ around/over, pe swáko rêgá 2) ~ at once, yekhátar 3) ~ day, sórro ges 4) ~ done, sa gáta 5) ~ kinds of, swáko fyálo 6) ~ morning, sa e diminyátsa 7) ~ night, sórro ryáto 8) ~ of a sudden, sa de yekh/sa ánd êkh dáta 9) ~ of that, sa godolêstar 9) ~ right, oráit (Am), mishto, wórta; It's all right. Mishto si. l0) ~ that, sa gadya 11) ~ the same, sa gadiki si/sa yêkh fyálo 12) ~ the time, sa e vryámya, sáyêk, sa vakt 13) ~ together, sa ánd êkh than 14) ~ the time, sáyek 15 ~ the way, zhi goréste/zhi ka o gor 16) id it ~, sa/sya; He ate ~. Xalyas sya.

Allah n Del Xoraxano comp/nm

all-along adv mai anglal; She knew ~. Zhanglas mai anglal.

all-at-once adv sa ánd-êkh-than, yekhátar

all-encompasing adj saré-vulimásko

alleviate vt 1) kovlyarel vt 2) oteshil vt

alleviated pp/adj 1) oteshime, kovlyardo 2) be ~, oteshíl-pe v/refl, kovlyárdyol vi

alley(way) n dromorro nm

alliance n maladimos nm, phralimos nm

allied pp/adj maladino nm

allied pp/adj maladino, maladilo

alligator nm korkodílo nm

allocate v 1) del vt 2) provyantíl vt

allocated pp/adj 1) dino, provyantime 2) be ~, dínyol vi, provyantíl-pe v/refl

allocation n alokátsiya nf

allot v 1) del vt 2) shinavel vt

allotted pp/adj 1) dino, shinado 2) be ~, dínyol vi, shinádyol vi

allow v 1) del vt/i 2) mekel vt 3) mukel vt; I allowed her to come in. Dem la andre.

allowance n alokátsiya nf, pênziya nf, stipénda nf

allowed pp/adj 1) meklo, muklo, slóbodo; That's not ~. Kodya nai slóbodo. 2) be ~, méklyol vi, múklyol vi

alloy n hamimos nm

alloy v hamil vt

alloyed pp/adj 1) hamime 2) be ~, hamíl-pe v/refl

all-the-way adv 1) zhi ka o gor (to the end); We are ready to go ~. Gêtimé sam te zhas zhi ka o gor. 2) saré-dromêsko; He complained ~ there. Vakílas-pe saré-dromêsko.

allude v del pofída comp/nf

allure v 1) farmakuyil vt (see enchant v) 2) sikiyil vt 3) têmnól vt

allurement n 1) fármako nm (spell) 2) sikiyimos nm 3) têmnomós nm

alluring adj sumnakuno (golden); His ~ charm deceived her. Hathadyas la pêska sumnakunya shibása.

alluring pp/adj 1) farmakuyimásko, sikiyimásko, têmno 2) be/become ~, farmakuyíl-pe v/refl, sikiyíl-pe v/refl, têmnól-pe v/refl

allusion n pofída nf

ally n maladino nm: maladini nf; wortáko nm: wortakútsa nf

ally v maládivel maládyol vi; We must ~ ourselves with them. Músai te maládivas/maládyovas lênsa.

almanac n almanáko nm

almighty adj sa-zoralo, sîlno

almond n almándo nm

almoner n rashai kai del love/xabe nm/phr

almost adv 1) mai do gáta; We are ~ there. Mai do gáta sam othe. 2) samuchi (almost, nearly); He ~ died in the horpital. Samuchi mulo ánde shpíta.

alms n bakshish nm, mangimáta nm/pl

alone adj kolkorro/korkorro This word is thematic but many speakers treat it as athematic; I was ~. Símas kólkorro. She was ~ in the house, Kólkorri sas ándo kher; id Leave it ~! Mek lês/la! 3) one psn ~, yekhorro nm: yekhorri nf; yekh zhenorro comp/nm: yekh zhenorri comp/nf

alone adv adv kólkorro/kolkorres; I did it alone. Kerdem kolkorres.

along prep 1) often included in the verb; Come ~! Háide! It was rolling ~ the road. Tavalílas po drom. 2) all ~; I knew all ~. Zhanglem mai anglal. 3) po; He/She was running ~ the road. Nashélas po drom.

alongside adv/prep 1) pásha, pashal 2 come ~ vt/i pashuvel vi

aloof adj 1) shîló/shîlaló 2) be ~, garavél-pe v/refl

aloof adv dural; He stood ~. Ashilo dural.

aloud adv/phr zoralé-glasósko, zorale glasósa

alphabet n alfabéto nm

already adv 1) orédi (Am), sa-gáta, vúzhe 2) He's ~ here. Sa-gáta kathé-lo. I ~ ate. sa-gáta xalem. When I got to the feast, my brother was ~ there. Kána areslem kai sláva múrro phral sas vúzhe kothe. 3) ába/yába; My soul is ~ bitter about her/it. Kérko yába mo gi ánda láte.

also adv/conj 1) prod/pref i- & vi; I am going ~. Í-me zhav. He went ~ his brother. Í-wo golótar, í-pêsko phral. Her sister is ~ beautiful. Í-laki phey shukar si. I ~ told his brother. Vi-mothodem lêske phralêske. 2) adv thai-vi; She served us bread and ~ meat. Dyás amênge manrro thai-vi mas. 3) adv haiyi, also, along with, and also,as well as; He came ~ as his brother.Wo avilo haiyi pêsko phral.

altar n altéri nm

alter v parruvel vt

alteration n lasharimos nm, parruyimos nm

altercation n 1) marimos nm 2) Marél-pe v/refl get into an ~ ; He got into an ~ during the feast. Mardyás-pe ánde sláva.

altered pp/adj 1) parrudo 2) be ~, parrúdyol vi

altered pp/adj 1) parrudo, parrudilo 2) be ~ parrúdyol vi

alternate adj averutno

alternative adj aver, averutno

alternative n avér-fyal nm; He has no ~. Nai lês avér-fyal te kerel.

alternatively averutnes, po k'aver wast

although conj nitála; ~ he is big, I am not afraid of him. Nitála baró-lo, chi darav lêstar.

altitude n vuchimos nm

altogether adv tistára

alum n típsa; root of ~, vûna-tipsáki comp/nf

aluminum adj aluminósko

aluminum n alúmino nm

always adv sáyêk, swágdar (eternally); You can't ~ get what you want. Nashti lês sáyek sáva so manges.

Alzheimer's disease nm bishterimos nm; He's suffering from ~. Chi serel so kerel.

am v I am, Sim; Are you Yóno? Tu san o Yóno? Yes, I am. Va, me sim. I am George. O Gyórgi sim. God, what ~ I to do? Dévla, so te kerav!

amalgamate v maládyol vi

amalgamated pp/adj 1) maladilo 2) be ~, maládyol vi

amalgamation n maladimos nm

amass v 1) kerel vt 2) munchil vt 3) munchíl-pe v/refl,

amateur n amatóri nm: amatórka nf

amateurish adj chorro; ~ work, chorri buki comp/nf

amaze v 1) chudiníl vt 2) mârmuríl vt 3) mêríl vt

amazed pp/adj chudinime, mârmurimé 2) mêrimé 3) be ~, chudiníl-pe v/refl, mârmuríl-pe v/refl, meríl-pe v/refl

amazement n chudinimos nm, mârmurimós nm

amazing adj chudinimásko, mârmurimásko; How amazing! Che chorrobíya!

ambassador n ambasadóri nm: ambasadórka nf

ambidextrous adj 1) do-wastêngo 2) id; He is ~. Si-lês dui chache wása.

ambiguity n ansuchimos nm

ambiguous adj do-rêgèngo; It is ~. Nai yázno.

ambivalent adj 1) do-gîndêngo, do-gîndênsa; I am ~ about the matter. Sim do-gîndênsa pe treyába. 2) do-rêgángo; It's an ~ situation. Do-rêgángi buki si.

ambulance n ambulántsiya nf

ambulatory adj phirimásko

ambush n mêrimós nm

ambush v 1) mêríl vt 2) xútel vt (jump); They ambushed him on the street. Xukle pe lêste ánde úlitsa.

ambushed pp/adj 1) mêritimé 2) be ~, mêritíl-pe v/refl

ameliorate v lasharel vt

ameliorated 1) lashardo 2) be ~, lashárdyol vi

amelioration n lasharimos nm

Amen! interj Ámin! Báter!

America n Amérika nf (continent) & United States of ~.

American (Lang) n Amerikanítska nf

American adj Amerikáko nf Amerikanítsko (proper noun)

American n 1) Amerikáno nm: Amerikánka nf ; ~ beauty n Amerikáki rúzha comp/nf

Americas n Américhi nm/pl; Roma of the ~. Rroma ánde l'Américhi nm/phr

amicable adj amalano, soséto

amicably adv 1) amalanes, sar amala adv/phr, sosetones 2) settle ~ , lashávol vi; They settled the problem ~. Lasháile e béda.

amid prep mashkar (among)

amity n amalimos nm, drágostya nf

ammonia n amonyáko nm

ammunition n amunátsiya nf, plûmbi nf/pl

amnesia nf bisherimos; He's suffering from ~. Chi zhanél-pe.

amnesty n bishterimos nm, yertimos nm 2) grant ~, yertil vt 3) be granted ~, yertisávol vi

amok adv 1) turbáto 2) run ~, turbatíl-pe v/refl

among prep mashkar; in ~, mashkaral adv; ~ ourselves; mashkar amênde, fig ánde tséra

amount (to) v mol vi; He will never ~ to anything. Chi mai kam-mol kánchi.

amount n gin (nm), sokotimos nm; small/trifling ~, pêkatúra nf

amp n ámpo nm

amperage n amporádji nm/pl

ampit n takh nf

ample adj 1) baro 2) be ~, dostuwíl-pe vi 3) make ~, dostuwil vt

amplifier n amplifikatóri nm, ámpo nm

amply adv bares, dósta

amputate v shinel vt

amputated pp/adj 1) shindo 2) be ~, shíndyol vi; His leg was ~. Shíndilo pêske pûnrró.

amputation n shinimos nm

amuck adv see amok adv

amulet n báiyero nm, ikonútsa nf (small religious ~), mulêski-dori comp/nf: “dead man's measure.” This is a piece of string used to measure the length of a dead Romani person's coffin and tied in a knot. It is used to summon the ancestral spirits or mule for protection.

amuse v 1) kerel phiriyása (make fun) with dat of object; Kerel pêske phiriyása. He is amusing himself. 2) gulayíl-pe v/refl 3) zêbêvíl vt 4) zêbêvíl-pe v/refl ~ oneself.

amusement n amuzátsiya nf, phiriyása nf, zêbáva nf

amusing adj asamásko, phiriyaslo, zêbavimásko

an indefinite article see a ; Give me ~ apple! De mánge phabai!

anaemic adj bi-zoralo, kovlé-ratêsko

anal adj xirpáko, xirpalo

analyis n analíso nm

analyze v kerel analíso comp/vt/i

anarchist n anarkísta nm/nf, Rrom bi-krisáko comp/nm, Gazho bi-zakonêngo comp/nm

anarchy n anarkíya nf, tráyo bi-zakonêngo comp/nm

ancestor n parínto nm: parínta nf, mule nm/pl (ancestral dead), dada nm/pl (forefathers

ancestral adj dadêsko/dadêngo, parintósko/parintêngo

ancestry n parintíya nf, rat nm

anchor n kruchóko nm, mútsa nf

anchor v peravel e mutsa comp/nf

anchorage n mólo nm

anchovies n anchóviya nf

ancient adj do-multano, phurano

and conj 1) ai, hai, kai, tha, thai 2) -u- in numerals from eleven to nineteen; desh-u-pansh fifteen 2) ~ also, thai-vi; He is coming ~ his brother. Wo avel thai-vi pêsko phral.

anecdote n híro nm, stóriyo nm

anemia n sáno rat comp/nm

anemic adj sané-ratêsko

anesthesia n anestíziya nf

anesthetic n anestétiko nm, drab nm

anesthetize v solvyarel v

anesthetized pp/adj sovlyardo 2) be ~, sovlyárdyol vi

anew adv po nevo

angel n ánzhêlo/ángyêlo nm: angyêláika nf, Mártiya nf (~ of Death, Death personified, nemesis), Harángyelo nm (Black ~/Witness from Purgatory) (folk), phakavno nm (Neolog/Biblical): phakavni (nf)

angelic adj angyêliko/anzhéliko, andjelikósko

anger n inétsiya nf, xoli nf

anger v 1) xolyarel vt ) 2) be/become ~, xolyávol vi

angered pp/adj 1) xolyardo 2) be ~ xolyárdyol vi

angle n gor nm (aim), kóltso n (geometric),; What's his ~? So si lêsko gor?

angrily adv xolyása

angry adj 1) xolyáriko nm 2) make ~, xolyarel vt 3) become/get ~, a) xolyáwol vi b) lel xoli with pe/po comp/vt; He got ~ at his brother. Lyas xoli pe pêske phrales.

anguish n kíno nm, míla nf, zhávo nm

animal n béshtiya fig/nf, zhêgáno nm (wild ~), zhívina nf (domesticated ~), zhivutro nm: zhivutri nf (generic animal/living creaturess)

animate adj zhivindo, trayimásko

animate v zhivindil vt

animated pp/adj 1) zhivindime 2) be ~, zhivindíl-pe v/refl, zhivindisávol vi

animation n zhivindimos nm

animosity n dushmaníya nf, vorrûtsíya nf, vorrûtsomós nm

ankle n chukui nm

annihilate v 1) mudarel sya v/phr; They almost annihilated us during the war. Mai do gáta mudarde ame sya ándo marimos. 2) prepedil vt

annihilation n mudarimos savorêngo comp/nm, prepedimos nm

annihilator n mudaritóri nm, prepeditóri nm

anniversary n aniversáriyo nm, bershêsko ges comp/nm, ansurimásko ges comp/nm (wedding)

announce v 1) mothol vt/i, 2) phenel vt/i

announced pp/adj 1) mothodo, phendo 2) be ~, mothól-pe v/refl 3) phéndyol vi

announcement n buletína nf

announcer n vorbitóri nm: vorbitórka nf (on radio/TV)

annoy v 1) badil vt 2) del xoli comp/vt 3) derandjil vt 4) sikiyil vt (tease) 4) xolyarel vt 5) id lel-pe pála; Don't ~ me anymore! Na mai le-tu pála mánde!

annoyance n badimos nm, derándjo nm, mushkerilyáva nf, xoli nf

annoying adj badimásko, derandjimásko

annual adj bershêsko

annually adv, bersheskones, swáko bersh

annul v 1) del-gáta comp/vt 2) mudarel vt

annulled part/adj díno-gáta, mudardo 2) be ~, dínyol-gáta comp/vi, mudárdyol vi

anoint v 1) pakivil zetinósa comp/vt 2) wuloiyil vt 3) zetenil vt

anointed pp/adj 1) pakivime zetinósa, zetinime 2) be ~, pakivíl-pe zetinósa comp/vi, zeteníl-pe

anointing n pakivimós-zetinósa comp/nm,wuloiyimos nm, zetinimos nm

anonymous adj bi-zhanglo, garado

anonymously adv garades

another adj averutno

another pron 1) aver 2) n averutno nm: averutni nf 3) pron ~ one, aver (subject to gender and number as pron) 4) ~ time/some other time, aver dáta adv

answer n atwéto nm, dímos-anglal comp/nm

answer v 1) del anglal comp/vt 2) del-pe anglal comp/v/refl 3) del atwéto comp/vt/i; ~ me! De mánge atwéto! 4) del pálpale comp/vt/i 5) del-pe pálpale vi/phr 6) phênga (used with the nom pron); “I don't know,” he answered. “Chi zhanav,” phênga wo. “I'm going home,” I answered. “Zhav khere,” phênga me. See phênga in KE dictionary 7) phuter vt; Don't answer the door! Na phuter o wudar! He answered the phone. Phuterdyas o tilifóno.

ant n khir nf

antagonism n dushmaníya nm, vorrûtsíya nf

antagonist n dushmáno nm: dushmánka nf

antagonize v 1) del xoli comp/vt/i 2) xolyarel vt (rile up)

antagonized pp/adj 1) dino xoli, xolyardo 2) be/become ~, dínyol xoli comp/vi, xolyávol vi, xolyárdyol vi

antelope n kûpêriwára nf

antenna n anténa nf, zhútso nm (on an automobile)

anthem n hímno/ímno nm; national ~, themêski-gili comp/nf

anthill, khirángo kwíbo comp/nm

anthracite n angár-zuralo comp/nm (~ coal)

anti - 1) adj/prefrix; prótivo-; anti-Romani, prótivo-Rromano; 2) anti-Semitic, prótivo-zhudovovítsko 3) anti-social adj bi-amalano 4) id; They are anti-social. Garavén-pe le themêstar.

anti- n/prefix; 1) anti-Gypsyism, anti-Rromanísmo 2) anti-Semitism, anti-Zhudovísmo nm

anticipate v azhukerel vt

anticipation n azhukerimos nm

antics n kerimáta nm/pl; silly ~, dilimáta nm/pl

antidote n lichimos nm (cure), lyáko nm (antidote for)

antifreeze n bi-marzomásko pai comp/nm

antiquated adj phurikano

antique adj phurano, phurikano; ~ chair phurikano skamin comp/nm

antique n phurikani/phurani práma comp/nf

antiquity n phuranimos nm; in ~, ándo phúrano véko.

antiseptic adj 1) chistome, wuzho 2) make ~, a) chistol vt b) wuzhyarel vt

antler n shing nm; antlers shinga nm/pl

antlered adj shingêngo

anus n xêv nf/vlg/sl, xírpa nf (Anat)

anvil n kovántsa nf, kovantsútsa nf, dópo nm (portable); jeweller's ~, dopútso nm

anxiety n 1) dar nf, nêkázo nm 2) cause ~, a) nêkazhil vt, b) daravel 3) suffer from ~, nêkazhíl-pe v/refl 4) ~ attack nêkázhimos nm

anxious adj 1) bokhalo, brigáko; He's ~ to find himself a house. Bokhalo si te arakhel pêske kher. 2) darano 3) xanzhwalo 4) be/become ~, bokhályol vi, daral vi, xanzhwályol vi

any pron/adj/adv 1) pron wúni, kónik usually with abl case; Have you seen ~ (of them)? Dikhlan wúni lênder? Did ~ (of them) attend? Avile wúni lêndar? He doesn't know ~ of us. Chi zhanel kónik amêndar. 2) adj kak/káyek; I don't have ~ money. Nai man kak love. 3) adv mai, mai but; Do you have ~ more? Si-tut mai but? 4) adj ~ one, fidesávo. waresávo; Take ~ one you want! Le fidesávo/waresávo kai manges! 5) adj nisávo; Any man can do so. Nisávo Rrom, shai kerel. Any hat will do. Nisávi stagi maládyol. 6) id; I gave you money when you didn't have ~. Dem tut love kána nas tut. He doesn't know ~ better. Chi zhanel aver-fyál. I didn't drink ~ of the wine. Chi pilem la molátar. Do you have ~ money? Si tut love? I don't have ~ money to give him. Nai man chi yekh lovorro te dav lêske. I haven't got ~. Nai ma.

anybody pron 1) wárekon (somebody), warekongodi; Is ~ home? Si wárekon khere? 2) kónik nm (nobody) I didn't see ~. Chi dikhlem kónik. 3) fersávo (Eur)

anyhow adv 1) antúnchi; Do it ~! Ker lês antúnchi! 2) ap/ápo 3) nã 3) defyal

anymore adv 1) chi mai, na mai; I don't go there ~. Chi mai zhav kothe. Don't go there ~! Na mai zha kothe! 1) id; He doesn't want it ~. Chi mangel akana.

anyone pron wárekon, kónik, fersávo

anything pron 1) wáreso nm (something) 2) khánchi (nothing) 3) sogodi 4) wáresavo 5) waresogodi

anytime adv wunívar, fidesávi vryámya; Come ~! Háide fidesávi vryámya!

anyway adv 1) defyal/po k'aver wast adv/phr 2) any way adv wáresar; I'll get there ~ I can. Aresav wáresar kai dashtiv. Do it ~ you want, just do it now! Ker lês/la wáredsar kai kames, núma ker lês/la po than! There isn't ~ we can do this work. Manai wáresar te keras kakya buki.

anywhere adv 1) wárekai (somewhere) 2) khatênde (nowhere) 3) warekaigodi

apart adj hulado, porrado (wide-open)

apart adv 1) kotorênde in/(into pieces); He broke it ~. Pharradyas ánde kotorênde. 2) rêgáte aside, to one side; Beshénas rêgáte. They were sitting apart/to one side. 3) break ~, pharrádyol vi; His family has broken ~. Pharrádyili pêski familíya. 4) id; The toilet is outside ~ from the house. E kabinéta si avri palal o kher. They are living ~. Nai ánd'ekh-than-le. 5) come/fall ~. phutérdyol vi; It came ~. phutérdilo. 6) take ~, phutrel vt

apartment n apartaménto nm

apathetic 1) khailo 2) be/become ~, khailyol v/i

apathy n khailimos nm

APB n pàrrâ nf; There's an ~ out on him. Si lês pàrrâ pe lêste.

ape n maimúno nm: maimúnka nf

ape v 1) kerél-pe v/refl 2) kérdyol vi

aperture n grápa nf

apex n gor nm, shoro nm

apiary n birivliyángo than comp/nm

apiece adv id They got two ~; Swakoro lyas po dui. see each pron

Apocalypse n Apokalípso nm, Agor la Lumiyáko nm/phr

apologize v 1) izviníl-pe vt 2) mangel yertimos v/phr 3) púshel yertimos 4) id; He came to ~. Avilo te mangel yertimos.

apology n1) izvinimos nm 2) id; He wants your ~. Mangel ke pushes lêstar yertimos. He apologized to me. Pushlas mándar yertimos.

apostle n apostólo nm

apostrophe n apostrofíya nf/neolog

apothecary n aptéka nf (store), patéka nf, aptekári nm (psn), patekári nm

appall v lazhavel vt

appalled pp/adj id; I was ~ when I saw the (refugee) camp. Sas ma báro lazhav kána dikhlem o kámpo.

appalling adj lazhavêsko (shameful), vorrúto (disgusting)

apparatus n aparáta nf, buki nf

appeal n akharimos nm, apéla nf, branimos nm, mangimos nm

appeal v 1) akharel vt 2) branil vt (a trial) 3) kerel apéla comp/vi 4) mangel nevi kris (ask for a new trial) 5) id; It doesn't ~ to me as a solution. E solútsiya nai mánge mishto.

appealing adj 1) kúchi (sexually), shukar (beautiful), mûndro (attractive) 2) be ~, plachal vt/i

appear v 1) anklel vi (~ in print) 2) avel; He appeared from nowhere. Avilo khatêndar. 3) avél-pe v/refl 4) meyázol vt (~ to be) 5) fal def/vt; Fal ma. It appears to me. 6) sikavél-pe v/refl; He rarely appears. Chi sikavél-pe butívar. You have to ~ in court. Músai te sikavés-tut ánde kris. 7) meyázol with dative case; It appears to me that he is lying. Meyázol mánge ke xoxavel. 8) sikádyol vi; The devil appeared in the smoke. O beng sikádyilo ánde thuv.

appearance n 1) fátsa nf, kípo nm, múi nm; I don't like his ~. Chi kamav lêski fátsa/lêsko mui. 2) avimos nm 3) anklimos nm

appease v 1) domolisarel vt 2) wolnosarel/wolnol vt

appeased pp/adj 1) domolime, wolnome 2) be ~, domolisávol vi, wolnosávol/wolnól-pe vi

appeasement n domolimos nm, wolnomos nm

appendicitis n barr-ándo-gi comp/nm; id; He had an attack of ~. Pharrule pêske pendíksurya

appendix n pendíkso nm, apendíchi nf/pl (in a book)

appetite n bokh nf, pófta nf (craving)

appetizing adj lashé-xamásko

applaud v 1) del pálma comp/vi 2) marel wása vt/i (clap hands) 3) tsipíl-pe v/refl (cheer)

applause n wasêngo-marimos comp/nm, tsipimos nm

apple n phabai nf; ~ tree, phabelin nf; crab ~, paduriyátsa; red (sweet) ~, lóli phabai ; ~ juice, phabêngo-músto comp/nm

apple pie n phabêngi-tórta comp/nf

appliance n strumênto nm

application n aplikátsiya nf, mangimos nm; ~ form, aplikatsyáki fórma comp/nf

apply v 1) kerel aplikátsiya vi (make application) 2) makhel vt (~ paint) 3) ródel vt/i ; He's applying for a permit. Ródel permíto. 4) thol vt/i (put); They applied the death penalty. Thodine lês te merel. 5) thol-pe v/refl (apply oneself); He applied himself to his work. Thodyás-pe te kerel buki. He applied for work. Thodyás-pe te mangel buki.

appoint v 1) alosarel/alol vt 2) apuntil vt 3) thol vt

appointed pp/adj 1) alosardo, apuntime, thodino 2) be ~, alosárdyol vi, apuntíl-pe v/refl, thodínyol vi

appointed pp/adj 1) alosardo/alome, apuntime 2) be ~, alosávol/alól-pe v/refl. apuntíl-pe v/refl

appointment n apuntaménto nm (to a position), gor nm, kidemos nm, maladimos nm, vizíta nf (with a doctor)

appraisal n tsînowimós nm

appraise v tsînowíl vt

appraised pp/adj 1) tsînowimé 2) be ~, tsînowíl-pe v/refl

appreciate v id; 1) He never appreciates what I do for him. Chi mai kamel so kerav lêske. They didn't ~ what you said. Nas mishto lênge so phendyan.

appreciated adj 1) nayisime 2) pp/adj kamlo, id; What he does is never ~. Chi mai si kamlo so kerel. I really ~ the gift. Kamlem but o dimos.

appreciation n kamimos nm, mishtimos nm, nayisimos nm

apprehend v 1) astarel vt (capture) 2) lel vt 3) phandavel vt (arrest)

apprehended pp/adj 1) astardo, lino, phandado 2) be ~, astárdyol vi, línyol, vi, phandádyol vi

apprehension n dar nf, nekázo nm, trash nf

apprehensive adj 1) darano, nêkazhimé 2) become ~, darádyol vi, nêkazhíl-pe v/refl

apprentice n pomózhnik nm: pomozhnikútsa nf; terno nm: terni nf; ~ bride, bori nf

apprenticeship n sikayvimos nm

approach n avimos nm, pashumos nm

approach v 1) avel vi 2) pashol/pashuvel vt/i

approaching adj avimásko, pashumásko

appropriate adj chachuno, pakivalo

appropriate v 1) lel vt 2) lel-pe v/refl (for oneself)

appropriated pp/adj 1) chordo, lino 2) be ~, a) chórdyol vi b) límyol vi

appropriation n limos nm, chorimos nm

approval n mishtimos nm, nayisimos nm

approval n swáto nm, wóya nf

approve (of) v 1) kamel vt/i; I don't ~ of what he did. Chi kamav so kerdyas. 2) id; I ~ of what we are doing. Mishto mánge so keras. She doesn't ~ of the wedding. Chi plachal la o abiyav.

approximate v gichil vt

approximately adv mai but wórka mai xansû (more or less); There are ~ fifty people in the hall. Si pínda zhene ándo hãlo, mai but wórka mai xansû.

approximation n gichimos nm

apricot n aprikáta nf

April n Abrílo nm; in ~, Abrílone adv

apron n kâtrínsa nf shwãrtsa nf

aptitude n haznomos nm, talénto nm

Aquarius n Pai nm (Zod)

Arab n Arábo nm: Arabáika nf

Arabia n Arábiya; of/from Arabia, Arabyáko gen/adj

Arabian (Lang) n Arabítska nf

Arabian adj Arabítsko

arbitrate v 1) âmpochíl vt 2) âmpochíl-pe v/refl

arbitrated pp/adj 1) âmpochimé 2) be ~, âmpochíl-pe v/refl

arbitration n âmpochimós nm

arbitrator n âmpochitóri nm: âmpochitórka nf

arbor n rêz n

arc n chêrko nm

arcane adj garado

arcane knowledge n hiftá-suvya comp/nf

arch bishop n rashai o mai baro nm/phr

archer n hêrkári nm

archive v arxivil vt

archived pp/adj 1) arxivime 2) be ~, arxivíl-pe v/refl

archives n arxívurya nm/pl

archivist n arxivísto nm: arxivísta nf

are vb/to-be you ~, san; they ~, si

area n barimos nm, than nm

Argentina n Arxentína nf

Argentinean adj Arxentinítsko

Argentinean n Arxentíno nm: Arxentinútsa nf

argue v chingarél-pe v/refl, xal-pe v/refl

argument n chingar nf, tsipimos nm, xamos nm

argumentative adj chingarimásko, xamásko; ~ psn, chingarásh nm: chingaráshhka nf (squabbler)

arid adj bi-paiyêngo, shuko

Aries n Bakro nm (Zod)

arise v 1) anklel vi; A dispute arose amongst them. Anklisti chingar mashkar lênde. 2) pomeníl-pe vi 3) wushtyal vi 4) wúshtel vi

arisen pp/adj 1) anklisto, pomenime, wushtilo 2) be/have ~, anklel vi, pomeníl-pe v-refl, wushtyal vi

aristocracy n raikano rat comp/nm, raiya/ra

aristocrat n rai nm: rani/rayi nf

aristocratic adj raikano, rángo; ~ ancestors, rángi parintíya comp/nf; He looks very ~. Meyázol raikano.

arithmetic n númerya nm/pl

Ark n Árka nf; Árka Nowêski comp/nf ~ of Noah

arm n árma nf (weapon), músai nm (Anat), sa-wast nm (Anat), wast nm (Anat)

arm v 1) del árma/armi; They armed the soldiers. Dine ármi le soldátsi. 2) id; He was armed with an ax. Sas-lês tover ándo wast. The soldier was armed with a rifle. Sas-lês karabína po dumo o katána.

armament n armamênto nm, armi nf/pl, provyánto nm

armchair n baro skamin comp/nm

armed forces n militáriya nm/pl

arm-in-arm adv wast-wastêste adv/phr

armless adj bi-wastêngo; one-armed, bi-wastêsko

army n armíya nf, kataníya nf (soldiery), vóiska nf (Eur); id le katanênsa; He is with the soldiers (in the ~). Wo si le katanênsa. He joined the ~. Thodyás-pe katána.

aroma n khand nf, khandimos nm (foul aroma), mirishyála nf, sung nf

around adv/prep 1) kruyal; He's wandering ~ the city. Phirel kruyal o fóro. She had flowers ~ her waist. Phiravélas lulugya kruyal o mashkar; all ~, pe saré-rêgáte 2) be ~ ; There were around thirty. Sas pásha triyánda. 3) Go ~ to the back door! Zha kruyal ka o wudar palal. 4) go ~, ankolil vt (detour) 5) get ~, zhal pe swáko rêgá (go everywhere)

arousal n phabarimos nm, wushtayimos nm, xolyarimos nm, xanzhyarimos nm

arouse v 1) baryarel vt (emotion/enthusiasm) 2) baryol vi; It aroused my emotioins. Azbadyas múrro yilo. 3) phabarel vt (arouse anger of city hall); He aroused City Hall and burned up (closed) the city (to fortune-telling). Phabardyas o fóro. 4) porravel vt (sexually) 5) wushtyavel vt (awaken) 6) xolyarel vt (anger) 7) xanzharel vt (sexually) 8) xanzhwályol vi (become ~) 9) xutyarel vt (sexually)

aroused pp/adj 1) baryardo, phabardo, porrado, wushtyado, xolyardo, xanzhardo, xutyardo 2) be ~, baryárdyol vi, phabárdyol vi, porrádyol vi, wushtyádyol vi, xolyárdyol vi, xanzhwárdyol vi, xanzhwályol vi, xutyárdyol vi

arraign v id; akharel ánde kris vt/phr

arraigned pp/adj 1) akhardo ánde kris v/phr 2) be ~, akhárdyol ánde kris v/phr

arraignment n akharimos ánde kris nm/phr

arrange v 1) grizhol vt (tidy up) 2) lasharel vt 3) thol ándo rrûndo vt/phr 4) wázdel vt (an event)

arranged pp/adj 1) grizhome vt, lashardo, thodino ándo rrûndo, wazdino 2) be ~, grizhól-pe v/refl, lashárdyol vi, thodínyol ándo rrûndo vi/phr, wazdínyol vi

arrangement n 1) âmpochimós nm, lasharimos nm, thodimos ándo rrûndo, wazdimos nm 2) come to an ~, âmpochíl-pe v/refl

arrears (in) n bi-pokindo adj; The rent is in ~. O rênto si bi-pokindo.

arrest n kidemos nm, limos nm, phandayimos/ phanglimos nm

arrest v 1) astarel vt 2) kídel vt 3) lel vt/i 4) phandavel vt

arrested pp/adj1) astardo, kidino, lino, phandado 2) be ~, astárdyol vi, kidiníl-pe v/refl, línyol vi, phandádyol vi

arrival nm aresimos nm, avimos nm

arrive v 1) aresel vi 2) avel vt 3) zabayíl-pe ( ~ late/be delayed)

arrogance n barikamos nm

arrogant adj barikano, barimatángo

arrogantly adj barikanes, id; nakh opre; He stared at me ~. Dikhlas pe mánde nakh opre.

arrow n súlitsa nf

arroyo n shúko-réko comp/nm

arse n bul (posterior) (Anat), xírpa nf (anus) (Anat); ~ of a pulley block, xírpa viráki comp/nf

arsenal n magazûno nm

arsenic n arséniko nm

arson v phabarimos nm

arsonist n phabaritóri nm: phabaritórka nf; yagári nm: yagárka nf

art n árta nf

artery n vûna-bari comp/nf (Anat)

arthritic adj artritikósko

arthritis n artrítiko nm

artichoke n artichóka nf

article n ákto nm (of law), artíklo nm/neolog (in a proposal or constitution), artíkulo nm (newspaper ~), buki/kova nf (thing in general), práma nf (jewelery), stóriyo nm (~/story in a newspaper), zakóno(in law), id; the genuine ~, e chachi buki

artificial adj fálshno, fálshivo, xoxamno; ~ cabbage rolls, xóxamne sármi nf/phr

artillery n tópurya nm/pl

artisan n artizáno nm: artizánka nf; ~ crafts, artizána nf

artist n artísto/artísta nm: artísta nf

artistic adj artístiko

arts n árti nf/pl

as adv/conj/prep sar; ~ white ~ snow, parno sar o iv, Do ~ I do! Ker sar me kerav! 2) vi, used as a comparative with sar; He is as big ~ me. Wo si sar baro vi mánde. Note: idioms and examples 3) as far as, zhi-ka, zhi-kai; 4) ~ you know. Sar zhanes 5) kána. He was singing ~ he worked. Gilabálas kána kerélas buki. 6) ~ long ~, zhêkùn 7) ~ well ~ adv/conj, a) opral pe; He loves somebody else ~ well as her. Volil avrya opral pe láte. b) thai-vi; I went to the bank ~ well ~ the store. Gelèm ka o bánko thai-vi o dukyáno. 8) conj as if, sar; He fled ~ if the devil were after him. Nashlótar ~ sar nashélas o beng pála lêste. 9) ~ usual adv normálo, sar normálo; He's sleeping, ~ usual. Sovel, sar normálo. 10) as well as, thai-vi; He came ~ his brother. Wo avilo thai-vi pêsko phral.

asafetida nf bengêski-khul comp/nf, drab-khandino comp/nm

asbestos nm azbésto nm; adj bi-phabarimásko

ascend v anklel v

ascendance n anklimos nm, wushtimos nm

ascendancy n vuchimos nm, wushtimos nm

ascended pp/adj anklisto

ascending adj anklimásko

ascent n anklimos nm

ascertain v 1) chachyarel vt 2) kerel sigúro

ascot n pósha nf

ash n 1) skrúma nf, wushar nm 2) ~ bread, pogácha nf, ~ tree, kasht-kovlo comp/nm

ashamed adj 1) lazhano; id I made him feel ~. Kerdem lês te pelo lêsko nakh tele. 2) be ~, lazhal vi 3) id; I am ~ (I have shame) to see this. Si ma lazhav te dikhav kakya. 4) make ~, lazhavel vt

ashes n práxo nm, skrúma nf, wushar nm; covered with ~, wusharalo adj

ashore adv pe phuváte

ashtray n sênzéro nm, skrumára nf (Eur)

Asia n Azíya nf

Asian adj Aziyáko

Asian n Gazhó-Aziyáko nm: Gazhí-Aziyáki nf

aside adv rêgáte; Put it ~! Tho lês rêgáte!

asinine adj dilivano, dilo, magarítsko, xerano; ~ gobbledegook, xérani ship comp/nf

ask v 1) molil vt 2) molíl-pe v/refl 3) púshel vt/i (us with abl of object); I asked him to help me. Pushlem lêstar te azhutil man. 4) púshel pe us with ablative of idirect object; He asked him for his daughter (in marriage). Pushlas lêstar pe lêska sha 5) rrûgíl vt (~ for, beseech/implore)

askance adv banges; He looked ~ at me. Dikhlas banges pe mánde.

asleep v 1) suto 2) be, ~, sovel vi 3) fall ~ /go to ~, sovél-pe v/refl; I'm leaving to go to sleep. Zha-ma te sová-ma 4) fall ~, ashel suto comp/vi; He got tired and fell ~. Khinilo hai ashilo suto.

asparagus n asparága nf (one stalk): asparádji nf/pl

aspect n fátsa nf, rêg nf

asphalt n 1) zêfto 2) lay ~, thol zêfto comp/vi

asphalted adj zêftomé

asphalting n zêftomós nm

asphyxiate v tasavel vt

asphyxiated pp/adj 1) tasado 2) be ~, tasádyol v

asphyxiation n tasayimos nm

aspirations n nadimos, nedezhdimáta nf/pl (hopes), sune (dreams)

aspire v 1) nadíl-pe v/refl 2) tsírdel-pe v/refl 2) id What does he ~ to do in life? So kamel te kerel ándo tráyo?

aspirin n aspirína nf

ass n 1) magarêsto nm, magári nm, magárka nf; xer nm: xerni nf/ 2) dilo nm (fool), dilorro nm (idiot) 3) bul nf (posterior); I kicked him in the ~. Dem lês pûnrró ánde bul.

assailant n dushmáno nm; dushmánka nf

assassin n mudaritóri nm: mudaritórka nf

assassinate v 1) mudarel vt (kill) 2) pushkil vt (shoot)

assassinated pp/adj 1) mudardo, pushkime 2) be ~, mudárdyol vi, pushkisávol vi; The president was assassinated. Pushkisaváilo o presidénto.

assault n asálto nm (Mil), marimos nm, (beating), silowimos nm (sexual ~), xuklimos nm

assault v 1) asaltil vt (Mil) 2) marel vt (beat up) 3) lel-pe with abl of object; They assaulted me. Liné-pe mándar. 4) perel pe vt (fall upon) 5) silowil vt (sexually) 6) xútel vi (jump, attack in a gang); The skinheads assaulted him. Le skini xukle pe lêste.

assaulted pp/adj 1) asaltime, mardo (beaten), silowime (raped) 2) be ~, asaltisávol vi, márdyol vi, silowíl-pe v/refl

assemble v 1) akharel ánd ekh than comp/vt/i (call together) 2) anzarel vt (tents, etc) 3) kídel-pe v/refl 4) thol ánd êkh than v/phr (put together)

assembled pp/adj 1) akhardo, anzardo, kidino, thodino ánd êkh than 2) be ~, akhárdyol ánd ekh than comp/vi, anzárdyol vi, kidiníl-pe v/refl, thodínyol ánd ekh than vi/phr.

assembly n akharimos ánd ekh than nm/phr, anzarimos nm, kidemos nm

assent n akórdo nm (accord, agreement), blagostóvo nm

asses v tsînowíl vt

assessed pp/adj 1) tsînowimé 2) be ~, tsînowíl-pe v/refl

assessment n tsînowimós nm

asset n kova nf, kuch práma comp/nf

assets n kidemáta nm/pl (savings), kuch-prámi comp/nf

asshole n xêv nf/vlg/sl, xírpa. What an ~! Che xírpa!

assimilate v 1) bilavel vt 2) bilal vi; He assimilated. Biláilo mashkar le Gazhênde. 3) gazhyarel vt 4) gazhikanil vt (Eur) 5) gazhikaníl-pe v/refl

assimilated pp/adj 1) bilado, gazhyardo, gazhikanime 2) be/become ~, biládyol vi, gazhárdyol vi, gazhikaníl-pe v/ref 3) Kashtale nm/nf/pl: Kashtalya comp/nf/pl; ~ Roma/Rrom-Gazhikanime comp/nm/nf/pl, Rroma/Rrom-kashtale comp/nm/nf/pl

assimilation n asimilátsiya nf, gazhikanimos nm (voluntary), gazhyarimos nm (forced)

assimilationist adj gazhikanimásko; ~ government, gazhikanimásko gubérno/gazhyarimásko gubérno comp/nm

assimilator n gazhikanitóri nm: gazhikanitórka nf

assist v 1) azhutil vt 2) pomozhil vt

assistance n azhutimos nm, pomozhimos nm

assistant n azhutóri nm: azhutórka nf; pomózhnik nm: pomozhnikútsa nf; wortáko nm: wortakútsa nf (work partner)

assisted pp/adj 1) azhutime, pomozhime 2) be ~, azhutíl-pe v/refl, pomozhíl-pe v/refl

associate n kolégo nm: koléga/kolegútsa nf, wortáko nm: wortakútsa nf

associate v 1) hamíl-pe; He associates with non-Roma. Hamíl-pe le Gazhênsa. He associates with women of ill-repute. Zhal le kurvánsa. 2) phirel vt; He associates with bad people. Phirel nasule gazhênsa.

association n asosiyátiysa nf, kumpaníya nf, sóveto nm (of Roma)

assorted adj hamime

assortment n hamimos nm

assuage v 1) chailyarel vt 2) chailyol vi 3) phagel vt (thirst)) 4) wolnol vt

assuaged pp/adj 1) chailyardo, wolnosardo/wolnome 2) be ~, chailyárdyol vi, wolnól-pe v/refl

assume v 1) gîndíl vt 2) gîndíl-pe v/refl 3) supozil vt 4) supozíl-pe v/refl 5) id; Let's ~ so! Supózo! 6) thol gogyáte comp/vt; He assumed I was not coming. Thodyas gogyáte ke chi avávas.

assumption n gîndo nmm supozimos nm, thodimos gogyáte comp/nm

assurance n garantíya nf, sigurimos nm, solax nf, swáto nm

assure v 1) del solax 2) del swáto; He assured me. Dyas mánge pêsko swáto. 3) solaxal vt

assured pp/adj 1) dino solax comp/vi, dino swáto comp/vi 2) be ~, dínyol solax vi, dínyol swáto vi

asthma n ásma nf

asthmatic adj asmátiko

astisanery n artizána/artizanáto nm

astonish v 1) chudenil vt 2) mârmuríl vt 3) miril vt

astonished pp/adj 1) chudinime, mârmurimé, mirime 2) be ~, chudiníl-pe v/refl, mârmuríl-pe v/refl, mirisávol vi

astonishment n chudinimos nm, mârmurimós nm

astray adv 1) ingarel ándo bezax vt/phr (lead ~) 2) kerel bezax vi (sin) 3) xasávol vi (go ~)

astride adv anklisto; He was ~ his horse. Anklisto sas.

astrological adj cheranáko/charêngo; ~ sign, cheranáko sámno comp/nm

astrologer n drabarni/drabarno kai zhanel le chera nf/nm/phr, gazhi/gazho kai zhanel le chera nf/nm/phr

astrology n astrolodjíya nf; practice ~, drabarel le cheránsa vt/i

astute adj 1) baré-dandêngo, buzhanglo, gogyaver, mûdro, xarano, xîtro/xlûtro 2) id; He is very ~. Si lês bare dand. He's not very ~. Nai lês bare dand. 3) become ~, gogyávol vi

asylum n azílo nm (political), azílo-polítiko comp/nm, chapladêngo kher comp/nm (institution for the mentally challenged), dilêngo kher/kher le dilêngo comp/nm (institution)

asylum seeker n azilánto nm: azilantáika nf

at prep 1) ka; He is ~ Pete's. Ka o Péte si. She is ~ school. Kai shkóla si. 2) the prepositional case can express `at'; He is staying at Yanko's place. Beshel le Yankóste. 3) pe; Look ~ me! Dikh pe mánde! He got mad ~ his brother. Xolyáilo pe pêske phrales. Note: compounds with at; 1) ~ all, de fyal adv 2) ~ home, khere adv 3) ~ last, ánde wurma adv 4) ~ night, ratyáko adv 5) ~ once, akanash/izdrázo adv 6) ~ this time, at this instant, pe kadya adv; At this instant, the dog barked. Pe kadya, bashlo o zhukel.

atelier n ateléri nm, shâpo nm (workshop)

atheist adj bi-Devlêsko. 1) The descriptive adj is followed by a noun and subject to gender and number; ~ He is an ~. Bi-Devlêsko gazho si. 2) id; He/She is an ~. Chi pajyal ándo Del.

athlete n gimnástiko nm: gimnastikútsa nf, sportsmáno nm: sportsmánka nf

athlete's foot n gêraló pûnrró comp/nm, xanzhwalo pûnrró comp/nm

athletic adj sportívo

athletics n gimnástiya nm

Atlantic adj Atlántiko; ~ Ocean, Máriya Atlantikóski nf

atlas n mapêngi búkfa comp/nf

atmosphere n háburo nm (air), halyarimos nm (feeling, mood)

atom n atómo nm

atomic adj atomikálno; ~ bomb, bómba atomikálno comp/nm; ~ energy, atomikálno zor comp/nf

atone v 1) nakhavel vt (~ for); He atoned for his sins, Nakhadyas pêske bezexa. 2) pokinel vt; He must ~ for his sins. Músai te pokinel pêske bezaxênge. 3) wuzhyarél-pe v/refl (cleanse oneself of); He cleansed himself of his sins. Wuzhyardyás-pe pêske bezaxêndar.

atonement n pokinimos nm, wuzhyarimos nm

atrocious adj bengêsko, djungalo, vorrúto

atrocity n bengimos nm, djungali-buki comp/nf

attach v 1) astarel vt 2) kleyol vt 3) lipil vt

attached pp/adj 1) astardo, kleyome, lipime 2) be/become ~, astárdyol vi, kleyól-pe v/refl, lipíl-pe v/refl

attachment n astarimos, kamimos (romantic), drágo nm lipimos nm; email ~, lipimos po ilêktrolil nm/phr; I have an ~ to her. Woi si mánge drágo.

attack n asálta nf (Mil), întrêgimós nm (Mil), marimos nm, silowimos nm, xuklimos nm

attack v 1) asaltíl vt 2) întrêgíl vt (Mil) 3) lel vt (~ by a disease, etc); They were attacked/struck) by plague. Line lên o póno. 4) lel-pe v/refl with abl of object; The man attacked her. O gazho lyás-pe látar. 4) marel vt (beat up) 6) perel vt (with pe & prep of object); The robbers attacked him in the forest. Le chor pele pe lêste ándo wêrsh. 7) silowil vt (rape) 8) xútel & pe with prep of object: The dog attacked him/jumped on him. O zhukel xuklo pe lêste.

attain v 1) aresel vt/i (achieve) 2) del ándo gor v/phr (~ one's goal) 3) lel vt/i (obtain)

attainable adj aresimásko

attempt n zumayimos nm

attempt v zumavel vt

attempted pp/adj 1) zumado 2) be ~, zumádyol vi

attend v avel vt/i 1) He attended the meeting. Avilo ka o djuléshi. 2) pravarel vt ( ~ to animals) ; I'm going off to ~ to the horses. Zhav te pravarav le grasten. 3) I will ~ to him. Me lav sáma lêstar. He's attending school. Zhal kai shkóla.

attendant n pomózhnik nm, portash nm

attention n aténsiya nf, kan nm, sáma nf ; Pay ~! Ashun! (Listen!). Pay ~! Tho sáma! He doesn't pay ~ to his work. Chi thol sáma ka lêski buki. Pay ~ to what I'm telling you! Le po kan so phenav túke me! Stand at ~! Besh wórta!

attentive adj ashunimásko; id; He's ~.Thol sáma.

attentively adj samása; He/She listens attentively. Ashunel samása.

attest v 1) chachyarel vt 2) sikavel vt

attic n sóba-opral comp/nf, taváno nm

attire n hurayimos nm

attire v see dress vt/i

attorney n avokáto nm, azhutóri nm, dukáto nm (Am)

attract v 1) akharel vt/i (attention) 2) tsírdel vt/i (draw,pull)

attracted pp/adj 1) akhardo, tsirdino 2) be ~, akhárdyol vi, tsirdínyol vi

attraction n akharimos nm, tsirdimos nm

attractive adj 1) shukar, mûndro, sumnakuno 2) become ~, shukárdyol vi 3) make ~, shukaryarel vt

auction n tobolátsiya nf

auction v bikinel pe tobolátsiya

auctioneer n tobolatsyáno nm

audacious adj bi-daráko, tromalo

audacity n 1) barikamos nm, tróma nf 2) have the ~ to, tromal vi

audibility n ashunimos nm

audible adj ashundo, ashunimásko

audience n ashunimos nm (meeting), ashunitórya nm/pl (listeners), kan nm, spektatórya nm/pl (spectators); The king granted him an ~. O thagar dyas lêske ashunimos.

audio adj ashunimásko

audio n ashunimos nm: ~ equipment, ashunimáta comp/nm

audiovisual adj ashunimásko hai dikhimásko

audit v sokotil vt

audited pp/adj sokotime 2) be ~, sokotíl-pe v/refl

audition n zumayimos nm

audition v zumavel vt

auditor n sokotash nm

auger n yar nf

augment v 1) baryarel vt 2) butyarel vt

augment 1) baryarel vt 2) butyarel vt

augmentation n baryarimos nm, butyarimos nm

augmented pp/adj 1) baryardo, butyardo 2) be ~, baryárdyol vi, butyárdyol vi

August n Avgósto nm; in ~, Avgóstone adv

aunt n bibi nf, bori nf

Auschwitz n Oshwítsa nf; Many Roma died at ~. Oshwitsáte, mule but Rroma.

auspices n vátra

auspicious adj baxtalo

Australia n Ostráliya nf

Australian adj Ostraliyáko; ~ Rom, Rrom Ostraliyáko

Austria n Béchi/Byéchi nm, Otríshiya nf

Austrian adj Bechêsko

Austrian n Otrishyáno nm: Otrishyánka nf

authentic adj chacho, chachuno, chísto (pure)

authenticate vt chachyarel vt

authenticated pp/adj chachyardo 2) be ~, chachyárdyol vi

author n ãtóri nm: ãtórka nf, ramosarno nm: ramosarni nf

authority n ãtoritéto nm (on a subject), barikanimos nm (power to do smthg), naihíya nf (jurisdiction), wóya nf (right)

authorization nm ãtorizátsiya nf, wóya nf

authorize v 1) ãtoraizíl vt 2) del e wóya (give the right/permission) 3) mekel vt

autograph n ãtográfo nm

automate v kerel avtomátiko comp/vt (make automatic)

automatic adj avtomátiko; It is ~. Zhal pêsa. (runs by itself)

automobile adj mobilêsko; ~ tire, mobilêski-shûna comp/nf

automobile n mashína nf (Eur), matóra nf (Eur), mobíli nm (Am)

autopsy n ãtopsíya nf

autumn adj tamnáko

autumn n támna nm; in the ~, támne adv

avail v haznil (make use of); He availed himself of the wood to make himself a fire. Haznisardyas o kasht te kerel pêske yag.

available adj disponíblo, id; ándo wast; Do you have money ~? Si tut love ándo wast?

avalanche n perayimos nm

avarice n lípsa, xanzhwalimos nm

avaricious adj 1) lipsime, xanzhwalé-lovêngo, xanzhwalo 2) become ~, a) lipsisávol vi b) lipsíl-pe v/refl c) xanzhwályol vi

avenge v id; 1) get revenge, lel primúta; He got his revenge on him. Lyas pêski primúta pe lêste. 2) turn back on/repay in kind ambóldel páplale; I'll repay him in kind. Ambóldav la lêske. 3) pay back, pokinel pálpale; I'll pay him back. Pokinav lês pálpale. 4) potrowil vt 5) potrowíl-pe v/refl (~ oneself)

avenue n stráda nf

average adj mashkarutno, prósto; The ~ Joe knows nothing about Roma. O prósto gazho chi zhanel khánchi ánda l' Rrom.

avian adj chiriklano

aviation n aviyátsiya nf

avid adj postárniko, yagalo, xanzhwalo

avoid v 1) ankolil vt (circle around/make a detour) 2) blokil vt (Am) 3) garavél-pe v/refl (hide from) 4) nashel vt (with ablative of object); I avoided him. Nashlem lêstar. 5) pashuvel vi with chi or na: I ~ him. Chi pashuvav lês. ~ him! Na pashuv lêste! 6) id Na zha pásha láte! Don't go near her! 7) id; He's avoiding me. Chi mangel te dikhel ma. 8) id; We ~ trouble. Beshas dur bedátar.

await v see wait v

awaited adj azhukerdo

awake adj pômênimé, wushtyado, zhivindime

awake v 1) pômêníl-pe v/refl 2) zhanglyávol vi 4) zhivindíl-pe v/refl

awaken v 1) pomeníl-pe v/refl 2) wushtyavel vt 3) zhanglyarel vt 4) zhivindil vt 4) zhivindíl-pe v/refl

awakened pp/adj 1) wushtyado, zhanglyardo, zhivindime 2) be ~, wushtyádyol vi, zhanglyárdyol vi, zhivindíl-pe

awakening n zhanglyarimos nm

award n nagráda nf, nagradóstiya nf

award v 1) del nagráda comp/vt 2) nagradil vt 3) shinavel vt

awarded pp/adj 1) dino negráda, nagradime, shinado 2) be ~, dínyol nagráda comp/vi, nagradíl-pe v/refl, shinádyol vi

aware adj 1) zhanglo 2) be ~, prindjarel vt/i 3) become ~, zhanglél-pe

awareness n 1) zhanglimos nm

away adv 1) inkya; ~ from, inkya katar; Throw it ~! Shúde lês/la inkya! Throw it ~ from the door! Shúde lês/la inkya katar o wudar! 2) adj id; He's ~ on business. Dural si, te kerel buki 3) blow ~ id; The wind blew it ~. Lya lês/la e balwal 4) ~ from, abl case; We drove ~ from the city. Tradyam le foróstar. 5) give ~, del inkya comp/vt/i 6) get ~, nashéltar vi; The prisoner got ~. Nashlótar o astardo. 7) go ~, zháltar 8) id; Keep ~ from those people! Na pashuv kodolênde! 9) far ~, dural: He lives far ~. Beshel dural. 10) carry/take ~, ingerel vt; He carried it ~ on his back. Ingardyas lês/la po dumo. 11) ingárdyol vi. be/get taken away; The trash was taken away. Ingárdyilo o gunoi.

awe n dar nf, mârmurimós nm, pakiv nf

awesome adj darano/ mârmurimásko

awful adj chorro (poor), darano (dreadful), kalo (tragic)

awkward adj klépovo, nm klépovo (~ male): klepováika nf; What a klutz! Che bari klepováika!

awkwardly adv klepovones

awl n yar nf

awning n shátra nf, tseráda nf, tserépo nm

awry adj 1) bango, bangyardo 2) become/go ~, bangyol vi

axe n tover nm

axle n wóziya nf; ~ grease, wozyáko chêkùn comp/nm

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